Sunday, May 24, 2020
Analysis of ÃâOf Mice and Men by John Steinbeck ÃâOf Mice And Men by John Steinbeck is a classic novel, tragedy, written in a social tone. The authorial attitude is idyllic, however, as the story develops it changes into skeptic. It is evident that Steinbeck knew the setting and places he is writing about. In my opinion Steinbeck drew the subject matter from his own experience of working on ranches, he was interested in special kinds of relationships among men working onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The men in the novel want to be like brothers to one another. They want to protect each other and to know that there is someone they can rely on. However, the world is too cruel to sustain such relationships. Lennie and George came closest to this ideal friendship, but they are forced to separate tragically. With this, a rare friendship vanishes, but the rest of the world - represented by Curley an d Carlson, who watch George leaving his friends dead body - fails to acknowledge it. The last theme is the impossibility of dreams. Most of the characters dream of a Motifs, which are repeated in the novel, are loneliness, friendship, strength and weakness. Men like George who migrate from farm to farm are often alone. As the story develops, Candy, Crooks, and Curleys wife all confess their deep loneliness. Each of these characters searches for a friend, someone to help them measure the world, as Crooks says. For George, the hope of such friendship dies with Lennie. Steinbeck explores different types of strength and weakness throughout the novel. The first, and most obvious, is physical strength. As the novel opens, Steinbeck shows how Lennie possesses physical strength beyond his control, when he cannot help killing mice. Physical strength is very important for men like George and Lennie. Curley, as a symbolShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalysis of ÃâOf Mice and Men by John Steinbeck ÃâOf Mice And Men by John Steinbeck is a classic novel, tragedy, written in a social tone. The authorial attitude is idyllic, however, as the story develops it changes into skeptic. It is evident that Steinbeck knew the setting and places he is writing about. In my opinion Steinbeck drew the subject matter from his own experience of working on ranches, he was interested in special kinds of relationships among men working on ranches with him. ThereRead MoreAnalysis of Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay815 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnalysis of Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck The story Of Mice and Men was written by John Steinbeck in the year of 1937, during this time the great depression had taken place. Also from 1930 till 1945 this was when World War 2 had taken place amounts of 12 to 15 million people were unemployed they were more poor people on the streets than ever before as with the combination of the hungry and the homeless due to the war and the stock market crash making 15,000 banks Read MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 2778 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesLiterature 15 October 2014 Author Study: John Steinbeck John Steinbeck, born in February 27, 1902, worked as a manual labor worker before achieving his success as a well renowned American writer. A compassionate understanding of the world s disinherited was to be Steinbeck s hallmark. The novel In Dubious Battle (1936) defends striking migrant agricultural workers in the California fields. In the novel Of Mice and Men(1937; later made into a play), Steinbeck again utilizes the hardships of migrantRead MoreAnalysis Of Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesreality. In the book of Of Mice and Men, written by John Steinbeck, the story is a tale of two drifters working from farm to farm, trying to make a living, and save some money to have their own place someday, which is their dream during the Great Depression. The characters face the hardships of loneliness, poor wages and living conditions, judgemental farm owners, and situations that thwart their success at reaching their dream. In Of Mice and Men, the author Stei nbeck negatively implies that havingRead MoreAnalysis Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck723 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesneed help. In mice and men, Lennie has trouble understanding the outside world and he takes time to process things in his brain. Lennie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know his strength and he can get into trouble easily. For example, when Curly wants to fight with Lennie, Lennie accidentally breaks his right arm. At the end of the story, Lennie hugs a puppy but accidentally kills it. Also, he kills CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife by snapping her neck. People with problems, how can they take care of themselves? In mice and men, George takesRead MoreOf Mice And Men By John Steinbeck Analysis1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬ by John Steinbeck, portrayed the times of hardship and struggle in United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Great Depression. When two exorbitantly contrasting drifters, try to make enough money by working on ranches to achieve their variation of the American Dream. Steinbeck e ffectively got readers attention through each dramatic page and ended the novella with a drastic turn of events that will leave the readers in awe. Although many book concerning the great depression may seem boring Steinbeck was successfulRead MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 799 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUday Sharma Ms. Hunt ENG-3U0 7/19/2015 Lennie Small: Character Analysis What happened to their dream? What went wrong? Of Mice and Men; by John Steinbeck is a novella about George and Lennie. George is a quick and witty person, whereas Lennie is slow and strong. Lennie Small is a child-like character who is innocent, kind-hearted, and short-tempered, these traits are some of the factors to many of the mishaps throughout the novella and relate to the theme that true friendship requires sacrificesRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRhetorical Analysis Essay John Steinbeck, writer of the novel, Of Mice and Men, uses many different rhetorical devices and appeals to unravel the essence and truth of the American Dream, while revolving around the world of these characters, George and Lennie. Written during the great depression, the novel itself shares the lives of many different people during that time period. It explored how everyone was treated through that time due to skin color, disabilities, and gender. Life during thisRead MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWeak Do opposites really attract? Can two people, with no similarities, share a close bond? It proves to be so in the novel Of Mice and Men , written by John Steinbeck. A novel which tells the story of two men, George and Lennie, and their journey of a new job working on a ranch. A novel with a different but interesting style of writing. A novel where John Steinbeck utilizes how powerful George is over Lennie, to signify how people believe they are dominant over others, because of their greaterRead MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestowards women have been a problem in society since men foolishly decided to give women the stereotype of being housewives and only good for breeding children. Those who refuse to follow the stereotype are considered promiscuous, or unfaithful towards their significant other. This stereotype was highly expected of women during the early twentieth century, and was also exhibited in John SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s Of Mice an d Men towards CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Of Mice and Men took place in the 1930s, and the plot follows two
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
In 1945, President Truman had to make one of the toughest decisions a president has ever been faced with. This decision, of course, being whether to drop the atomic bombs on Japanese cities, not drop the bombs at all, or do a demonstration by dropping a bomb in the ocean near Tokyo. Truman eventually chose to drop the atomic bombs on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945. This choice to drop the atomic bombs was right because these bombings assisted in slowing the expansion of the Soviet Union, changed the Japanese never-give-up mentality, and prevented the loss of many American and Japanese lives. For a start, the use of the atomic bombs helped slow the expansion of the Soviet Union following World War II. In regards to this, the United States was able to use the threat of the atomic bombs to protect Western European countries from outside threats, which included communist takeover by the Soviet Union. This legitimate threat of nuclear defense of allies in Western Europe fol lowing the dropping of the atomic bombs was significant because it prevented the Soviet Union from attempting to take over and establish socialist governments in these countries as it had in Eastern Europe. In addition, due to the atomic bombings, the United States obtained a complete surrender by the Japanese to its troops alone rather than to both American and Soviet troops. This Japanese surrender to the U.S. alone was important because it allowed the United States to be in charge of theShow MoreRelatedAtomic Bombs Were Dropped On The Japanese Cities Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945. This decision brought about many consequences on both Americans and Japanese. By the 1940s the creation of atomic weaponry became possible Ã¢â¬Å"because of Italian scientists Enrico FermiÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of the radioactivity of uranium in the 1930sÃ¢â¬ (Brinkley 638). Eventually this spread to the United States, and it was undertaken by military. President Harry Truman Ã¢â¬Å"issued an ultimatum to the Japanese, demandingRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb On The World War II887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdrop two atomic bombs days apart in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. I completely agree with President TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to drop the atomic bomb on the two Japanese cities because I believe it is the main reason that ended World War II. Being from Malaysia, my grandparents often told me stories of their sufferings during World War II. As SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s former Prime Minister concurred, the Japanese soldiers were mean, brutal and vicious towards the civilians, and if the atomic bombs were notRead MoreHiroshima And Nagasaki Bombing Of Hiroshima1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBombing In 1945, the US dropped 2 atomic bombs on the cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, causing hundreds of thousands civilian deaths. Some people say that this act helped to end the world war and save more lives, but others think that it was not needed and wasn t the cause of the Japanese surrender. Sequence of Events 5th August 1945 President gives approval to use bombs 6th August 1945 Bombing of Hiroshima 9th August 1945 Bombing of Nagasaki 15th August 1945 Japanese surrender (This Day in HistoryRead MoreThe United States Was Justified in Dropping the Atomic Bombs on Japan1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStates of America dropped the Atomic Bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The use of these bombs brought a quick end to World War 2, yet caused extensive damage to the two Japanese cities. There have often been disputes as to whether the USA was justified in the dropping of the atomic bombs because of the damage they caused, not only to the cities, but to the people of Japan as well. Many people believe that the USA should not have dropped the bombs because of the damage they causedRead MoreThe Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdropping of the atomic bombs in Japan was a very helpful source for the United States during the WWII. President Truman, took the responsibility of dropping and creation of the atomic bomb. For the reason that The United States was seeking revenge on Japan for the attack at Pearl Harbor. The atomic bomb caused a high number of innocent Japanese deaths and also awful sickness. The atomic bombs left a big impact in the Japanese empire; also effected the Japanese at the time of the atomic bomb and the generationRead MoreThe Threat Of The Atomic Bombs1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe U.S. was Right in Dropping the Atomic Bombs In 1945, President Truman had to make one of the toughest decisions a president has ever been faced with. This decision, of course, being whether to drop the atomic bombs on Japanese cities, not drop the bombs at all, or do a demonstration by dropping a bomb in the ocean near Tokyo. Truman eventually chose to drop the atomic bombs on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945. This choice to drop the atomic bombs was right because these bombings assistedRead MoreAtomic Bomb Essay923 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Atomic Bomb was the deadliest weapons in the history of war. Throughout World War II one of the most stubborn countries to surrender was Japan who relentlessly fought against the United States of America. After failing to defeat America, Japan was overwhelmed by allied forces. Staying with tradition however, Japan would rather die in battle than to surrender. The Soviet Union also fought against America but that was towards the end of the war. The United States dropped both of the Atomic BombsRead MoreA Closer Look at the Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseach one, the Japanese set themselves up for disaster. On August 6, 1945 the course of history was changed. Two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima, and three days later, August 9, 1945, on Nagasaki that ended World War II. Japan had already been a defeated nation from conventional bombs and World War II. Many innocent lives were lost, psychological scars were left on the lives of the bomb survivors, and thus many lives were changed forever. The atomic bombings causedRead MoreThe Morality of the U.S. Bombing Hiroshima1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Morality of the U.S. Bombing Hiroshima On August 6 and 9, 1945, the only atomic bombs ever used in warfare were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The mass destruction and numerous deaths caused by those bombs ultimately put an end to World War II. Was this the only way to end the war, however? Could this killing of innocent Japanese citizens had been avoided and the war still ended quickly. This paper will go into this controversial topic.Read MoreTruman and Atomic Bombs649 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdecision to order the dropping of the atom bomb. HARRY S TRUMAN amp; THE DECISION TO ORDER THE DROPPING OF THE ATOMIC BOMB Boom! Boom! Seventy thousands Japanese citizens were perished instantly after the first atomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Japanese still refused to surrender to Allied forces. On August 9, 1945, with the dropping of the second atomic bomb in Nagasaki, where eighty thousands people were vaporized, Japanese surrendered unconditionally and the World War
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950Ã¢â¬ ³s resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. We will write a custom essay sample on National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( or any similar topic only for you Order Now The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the White elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the White elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school. Mr. Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law. In 1892, the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision had set a precedent for the issue of Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equal,Ã¢â¬ which had been applied to school in the Southern states since then. Parents in other states were also pursuing the challenge to the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ doctrine in South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware. Mr. BrownÃ¢â¬ s case was heard by the U. S. District Court for the District of Kansas. The request by Mr. Brown was to prohibit segregation of the public schools in Topeka. The NAACP argued to the court that separating Black children from White children was sending a wrong type of message to the Black children. The message being sent was that Black children were somehow inferior to Whites and that there was no way that the education being provided could be equal. On the other hand, the Board of Education argued that segregation was a fact of life in the states where these children attended school, and that segregated schools helped prepare the children for the reality of what their adult lives would be like (Robinson 2005). The Board of education went on to cite different successful educated American, none of whom attended integrated schools, such as Frederick Douglass, George Washington Carver, and Booker T. Washington. In handing down their decision, the judges in this case wrote that Ã¢â¬Å"colored childrenÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ suffered a Ã¢â¬Å"detrimental effectÃ¢â¬ from segregation of the schools (Robinson 2005). However, they believed that the legal precedent set by the Plessy vs. Ferguson case prevented them from issuing the requested injunction and the result was that they ruled in favor of the Topeka Board of Education. Mr. Brown and the NAACP appealed the case and it went to the United States Supreme Court in the latter part of 1951. The case was combined with the Delaware, Virginia, and South Carolina cases. The Supreme Court handled this case very delicately and deliberated for quite sometime. The case was first heard by the Supreme Court, but a decision was not made at that time. Various interpretations of the Fourteenth Amendment were discussed and whether the Plessy vs. Ferguson case had violated it. The case was heard again by the Supreme Court in December of 1953. Thurgood Marshall, who was the first African American Supreme Court Justice, gladly argued for Brown and the NAACP. Finally, a decision was made. On May 17, 1954, the U. S. Supreme Court issued the following decision: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal education opportunities? We believe that it doesÃ¢â¬ ¦ We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ has no placeÃ¢â¬ ¦ (Brown vs. Board 1954). The Supreme Court tasked the nation with implementing this historic decision with deliberate speed. Recognizing the value of education, the court ruled unanimously in favor of equity. The Supreme Court declared that education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. It prepares our children for later professional training and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. The court also declared that it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. But the vagueness of the phrase combined with continued bigotry slowed the process, in some cases to a standstill. With the segregation of public schools declared unconstitutional, segregationists across the South sprang into action to prevent the implementation of public school integration. Some states began to pass state laws to uphold segregation, which then had to be challenged in court by the federal government, one by one, delaying black children from attending White schools. Councils began to be developed, by segregationists, to fight against desegregation. One of the most dramatic occurred in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957, when White mobs screamed threats at nine Black high school students and blocked them, as they tried to go into their new school for the first time. The Black students were unsuccessful, unfortunately. The president at the time was President Eisenhower, of whom ended up calling in the National Guard to protect them so they could enter the school. President Eisenhower had to call in the National Guard to escort black children to an Arkansas school that refused to integrate. Other communities used different tactics to resist. In Virginia, schools closed rather than desegregate. Elsewhere, some white families migrated to suburbs. Some black parents kept their children in the same black schools to avoid conflict. Families who chose white schools under freedom of choice plans, allowing black children attend any school in a district, received threats. In at least one instance, a cross was burned outside the home of a family. Across the nation, the 1954 Supreme Court decision brought forth dreams of heightened hope and yet resistance, as well. According to Benjamin Mays, the backbone of segregation had been broken. Martin Luther King expressed that the decision was a joyous day-break after a long desolate midnight (Moss 2004, 63). In conclusion, school desegregation was not an issue that was resolved overnight; rather, it was the persistence of those against segregation and the realization of the unequality that it was enduring upon our children that pushed the historic decision that will never be forgotten. Fifty years after the decision was made, it stands to reason that generations of U. S. students have benefited from its relief. The ruling spawned other protectionist laws, Title IX, for example, which specifically extends BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s principles to gender, that prohibit noncompliant institutions from receiving federal funds, and it cleared the educational paths of millions of minority students. Yet today, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s impressions of the impact of the decision vary as widely as their personal experiences. Baby boomers recall a time of expanded opportunity and change, while younger generations, nowadays, feel that the current classroom compositions are what they are, with the law behind them, the issue simply fills the pages in their history books. Although the Brown case directly addressed racial discrimination in public schools, the case has had great significance for women, as well. The Brown vs. Board of education decision was the legal decision necessary to stop segregation in its tracks. By the time the decision was handed down by the Supreme Court, Linda Brown had already moved on to attend middle school. How to cite National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloud Computing. Answer: Introduction With the paradigm shift experienced in information and communication technology (ICT or IT), cloud computing has emerged as a global phenomenon, spreading its wing over a wide horizon. The term cloud computing has become a part-and-parcel of modern multinational business corporations (MNCs) such as Apple, IBM, Google, and Amazon and so on. With the monumental development of internet and computational technologies, coupled with mobile technologies, cloud computing has emerged as an omnipotent and omnipresent phenomena. Keeping aside the commercial intent, cloud computing has also ushered significant benefits for general utility, for example in healthcare sector. Therefore, the following sections will critically discuss in detail the different modes of use and the beneficial as well as negative outcomes yielded by cloud computing. Conceptual framework Figure 1: Conceptual Framework (Source: Kavis, 20144, p.242) Defining cloud computing Kavis (2014, p.129) has defined cloud computing as delivering the computing services through the internet. In other words, cloud computing is involved in delivering on-demand computing resources through internet on a pay-for-use contract. Generally, the services provided through cloud computing spans over a wide horizon such as servers, databases, storages, analytics, storages, software application and many more. Pearson (2013, p.18) has mentioned core elements of cloud computing as- Pay-per-use Using as per the nature and time of requirement Third-party provided service Zero change in ownership of the original property (intellectual or physical) Figure 2: Core elements of cloud computing (Source: Pearson 2013, p.12) From this perspective, cloud computing can be termed as an unique service that can allow multiple users to gain access in a specific project simultaneously without jeopardising the functionality or security protocols of a network infrastructure, that too irrespective of geographical borders or time. Exploring the evolution of cloud computing The origin of term cloud computing is itself shrouded in cloud as there is no specific mention of this term in history. The initial schematics of cloud computing referred to the use of internet in connecting several computers and the term cloud was used there as a metaphor for inter-connectivity irrespective of space and time (Rittinghouse and Ransome, 2016, p.177). The cloud symbol was fort formally used in ARPANET in the early 1977s and later service resembling cloud computing was also used by CSNET in 1981. However, both these instances predate the formal origin of internet, therefore scholars are sceptic whether to define such usage as a proper cloud computing or not. A major step in the evolutionary landscape of cloud computing was realised during 1960s with the popularisation of Remote Job Entry (RJE). Remote service providing vendors such as IBM and DEC popularised this terminology (Ibm.com, 2017). Later, in the 1990s, offering of Virtual Private Network services by telecommunications companies gained significance popularity. Such services were available at a lower cost and allowed users to switch traffic for maintaining the balance of servers (Fernndez et al. 2014, p.385). The first modern appearances of term cloud computing traced in a Compaq internal document. Since 2000, cloud computing service ballooned and started to be used for commercial purpose, which was earlier used by governmental agencies such as NASA. Finally, with the introduction of Elastic Compute Cloud by Amazon in 2006, this computing service was introduced to common public and since then cloud computing has gained continuous momentum (Hwang et al. 2013, p.167). Critically analysing the theoretical underpinnings of cloud computing The theoretical standpoint of cloud computing can be best understood through a critical evaluation of major cloud service models. It can also help to ascertain the types of cloud services and thus comprehend the benefits and challenges associated with each of them. Fernando et al (2013, p.86) has identified three major types of cloud services frequently used in contemporary world - IaaS, SaaS and PaaS model. However, it should be noted that there are also several other services models used in the arena of cloud computing. Data Analytics as a service is one major example in this regard. Figure 4: Three Major Cloud Service Models (Source: Fernando et al. 2013, p.85) Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) One of the most rudimentary form of cloud computing, IaaS allows users to rent information technology infrastructure such as servers and networks, storage, operating system, virtual machines tec. As per Kavis (2014, p.165), IaaS involves a pay-per-use service and is the main benefit lies in the absence of investing a large amount of resource for building hardware. In addition, as the services are available for rent, the providers can supply flexible as well as informative services based on clients demands. Despite the advantages, IaaS is the most expensive mode of cloud computing and the client has to take care of backup system regularly. A prominent example of this type of cloud service is Amazon WS service. Platform as a service (PaaS) In the opinion of Al-Roomi et al. (2013, p.95), PaaS is a special type of cloud computing service that provides on-demand cloud -based environment to clients where they can develop, test, deliver and manage a wide range of software applications. Such service is beneficial for developers as it allows them to freely develop applications minus the headache over managing entire infrastructure. One major drawback of PaaS is that the user has virtually no control over the platform and has to depend solely on cloud provider. Googles App Engine can be cited as a suitable example for this type of cloud computing service. Software as a service (SaaS) As per Dinh et al. (2013, p.1589), SaaS allows the delivery of software applications through internet, generally in a subscription based mode. In this type of service, cloud service providers host, manage and undertakes the maintenance of software application and associated infrastructure. In this way, users can relish the benefits of using upgraded software applications without worrying about information loss. Hashem et al. (2015, p.99) has criticises this platform as the user is not authorised to add or modify any features, thus posing a limitation in application. Google Docs, a cloud-based document editor application is one famous example of SaaS. Figure 5: Adoption of Cloud Computing services (Sources: Rittinghouse and Ransome, 2016, p.172) These models are deployed into service through several forms. As commented by Oliveira et al. (2014, p.498), major deployment models include public cloud, community cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud. Public cloud generally employs a SaaS mode and Google is a notable example of this type of cloud. On the other hand, private clouds are managed by private entities and maintenance of such cloud often involves high expense, owing to integrated firewall services. The disadvantages of these two cloud services were averted in hybrid cloud, where elements of private, public and community cloud services have been effectively blended in (Avram, 2014, p.530). This type of cloud service allows the movement of information an application between public and private clouds. CRM software platforms can be cited as an example of hybrid cloud. Critically evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing Now that most commonly used models of cloud computing and associated cloud services has been critically discussed, it is imperative to speculate the benefits provided by those cloud services, along with the challenges posed by them. Advantages of cloud computing As Avram (2014, p.529) has commented, cloud computing has revolutionised the business process by incorporating IT resources into it. As a result, contemporary organisations, irrespective of their nature and purpose, churn huge benefit from implementing cloud computing. Major benefits have been penned down in the following points- Cost efficiency As per Sicari et al. (2014, p.148), cloud computing is undoubtedly the most cost-effective mode of technology to be used in wide array of scenarios. Cloud computing has enabled organisation to cut down their capital expense involved in setting up IT infrastructure and its maintenance. Consequently, the costs for ensuring continuous power and cooling have also been transferred in other productive purposes. Furthermore, this service is also available at comparatively cheaper rate and clients can render this service as per their specific needs and requirements, thus saving cost from investing in unnecessary applications. Speed As most of cloud computing service providers supply self-service features, vast amount of information of resources can be processesed within a very short span of time. Sultan (2014, p.180) has stated that the added speed available in cloud computing service grants medical business greater flexibility and thus reduces the pressure associated with capacity planning. Global presence cloud computing services, not being limited to any physical IT infrastructure, grants greater elasticity to business in terms of scaling (Ibm.com, 2015). This helps individuals working from different corners of the world to smoothly collaborate with each other without much hassle. Increased productivity and performance IT industry often involves typical time consuming IT chores such as setting up hardware, software patching and so on. Fortunately, cloud computing has reduced the need for such activities and allowed IT organizations to focus on pursuing their business goals - thus increasing both organisational performance and productivity. Better reliability With the options of online storage, backup and recovery, cloud computing has increased the reliability and security of information (Azure.microsoft.com, 2017). As cloud service providers are responsible manage the security patching, user can store sensitive information without worrying much. Furthermore, the provision of data mirroring also grants additional layer of security in case information is lost from one host. Automated software upgradation and integration Another major benefit associated with cloud computing is that software used by users are automatically integrated in the cloud platforms, thus removing the additional effort of an user to customise the application s per personal requirement. Scalability and flexibility Assuno et al. (2014, p.12) has stated that cloud computing assist organisations to utilize additional resources as per their requirements, this amplifying the organisational productivity. Through the provision of easy resource sharing, organizational activities become more flexible and management can easily scale the outcomes of every activity efficiently. Automated and focussed approach Dinh et al. (2013, p.1595) has commented that cloud computing has enabled organisations to automate their processes so that data management requirements are addressed effectively. In turn, this has allowed resource sharing smoother and organisations can now focus on their productive activities such as research and development (RD) more effectively. Disadvantages of cloud computing Contrary to numerous advantages, cloud computing also incorporates several major threats that can be considered as it disadvantages. They are- Figure 5: Major disadvantages of cloud computing (Source: Kshetri 2013, p.372) Security issue In the opinion of Kshetri (2013, p.373), security concern is the major drawback of cloud computing. As in most of cases users cannot put additional encryption to the stored information, any malicious agent such as hacker can easily gain access to that information. Such cases are more prevalent where cloud service providers are not capable of augmenting highly efficient firewall mechanism. Furthermore, cloud-service provide a by a third-party provider often involves the risk of entire data loss if the service provider runs into any cyber-attack. Therefore it is recommended to the beneficiaries to carefully evaluate the security service provided in the cloud platform. Cost Although cloud computing may appear as cost-effective from the surface, it is often just tip-of-the-iceberg. Once an organisation shifts into cloud computing, it is virtually impossible to revert back to conventional mode. As a result, the organisation has to continually spend financial resources for hiring and maintaining the cloud service (Patel et al. 2013, p.27). In this way, cloud computing can become much costlier in the long run. Lack of flexibility As contradicted by Stojmenovic et al. (2016, p.2995), opting for cloud computing can permanently lock the bones procedure of an organisation into that mode, thus preventing additional formats or applications to be used in the future. For example, an organisation cannot use document made from another application in the Google Docs platform, as it simply would not support. Thus, cloud computing essentially hinders flexibility in operations. Apart from these major disadvantages, other drawbacks of cloud computing include lack of support (difficulty in obtaining customer service promptly), probability of breaching the confidentiality of sensitive information (breaching the data privacy protocols), backdated encryption technology (leading to major interception), lack of fixed and scheduled backup service, lack of control over data (as cloud platform is maintained by third-party vendor), malicious intents of intermediary agencies, lack of valid information over data storage location (data often stored in remote servers) and last but not the least lack of provision of audit (Sun et al. 2014, p.192). Identifying the gaps in policies and practices From the discussion made above, it is clear that major gaps associated with cloud computing involves involvement of high cost, lack of security and absence of any specific cloud computation policy. Absence of any robust policy allows misuse of cloud computing technology for malicious practices, thus bring the sensitive and valuable information stored into cloud at stake. Conclusion This paper has critically evaluated the advantages endowed and disadvantages posed by cloud computing (CC). For this purpose, an operational definition of cloud computing was furnished in the beginning of this paper. After that, the evolutionary perspective of cloud computing was penned down which depicted the origin of cloud in 1970s and its gradual development through the years. In the next section, most frequently used three models of cloud computing, namely IaaS, PaaS and SaaS were briefly discussed. The discussion followed by critical evaluation of the advantages and the disadvantages yielded by cloud computing. While the major advantages include increased speed, performance, productivity and reduction of cost; negative aspects include concern over data security and lack of effective control. Finally, gaps were identified from the discussion and it can be concluded that cloud computing is an effective tool of digital technology that can be used in different contexts and usher si gnificant benefits. However, the entity implementing cloud computing should be aware of the challenges and adopt necessary preventive steps. In this way, the paper has presented a holistic account on different aspects of cloud computing. Reference list Al-Roomi, M., Al-Ebrahim, S., Buqrais, S. and Ahmad, I., (2013). Cloud computing pricing models: a survey.International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing,6(5), pp.93-106. Assuno, M.D., Calheiros, R.N., Bianchi, S., Netto, M.A. and Buyya, R., (2015). Big Data computing and clouds: Trends and future directions.Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing,79(8), pp.3-15. Avram, M.G., (2014). Advantages and challenges of adopting cloud computing from an enterprise perspective.Procedia Technology,12(9), pp.529-534. Azure.microsoft.com. (2017).What is cloud computing? A beginners guide | Microsoft Azure. Available at: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/ [Accessed on 17 Aug. 2017]. Dinh, H.T., Lee, C., Niyato, D. and Wang, P., (2013). A survey of mobile cloud computing: architecture, applications, and approaches.Wireless communications and mobile computing,13(18), pp.1587-1611. Fernndez, A., del Ro, S., Lpez, V., Bawakid, A., del Jesus, M.J., Bentez, J.M. and Herrera, F., (2014). Big Data with Cloud Computing: an insight on the computing environment, MapReduce, and programming frameworks.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery,4(5), pp.380-409. Fernando, N., Loke, S.W. and Rahayu, W., (2013). Mobile cloud computing: A survey.Future generation computer systems,29(1), pp.84-106. Hashem, I.A.T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N.B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A. and Khan, S.U., (2015). The rise of big data on cloud computing: Review and open research issues.Information Systems,47(8), pp.98-115. Hwang, K., Dongarra, J. and Fox, G.C., (2013).Distributed and cloud computing: from parallel processing to the internet of things. Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann. Ibm.com. (2015).4 Types of Cloud Computing Deployment Model You Need to Know. Available at: https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/blogs/722f6200-f4ca-4eb3-9d64-8d2b58b2d4e8/entry/4_Types_of_Cloud_Computing_Deployment_Model_You_Need_to_Know1?lang=en [Accessed on 16 Aug. 2017]. Ibm.com. (2017).IBM - What is cloud computing?. Available at: https://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/learn-more/what-is-cloud-computing/ [Accessed on 16 Aug. 2017]. Kavis, M.J., (2014).Architecting the cloud: design decisions for cloud computing service models (SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS). Hoboken: John Wiley Sons. Kshetri, N., (2013). Privacy and security issues in cloud computing: The role of institutions and institutional evolution.Telecommunications Policy,37(4), pp.372-386. Oliveira, T., Thomas, M. and Espadanal, M., (2014). Assessing the determinants of cloud computing adoption: An analysis of the manufacturing and services sectors.Information Management,51(5), pp.497-510. Patel, A., Taghavi, M., Bakhtiyari, K. and JNior, J.C., (2013). An intrusion detection and prevention system in cloud computing: A systematic review.Journal of network and computer applications,36(1), pp.25-41. Pearson, S., (2013). Privacy, security and trust in cloud computing. InPrivacy and Security for Cloud Computing. London:Springer. Rittinghouse, J.W. and Ransome, J.F., (2016).Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security. Boca Raton: CRC press. Sicari, S., Rizzardi, A., Grieco, L.A. and Coen-Porisini, A., (2015). Security, privacy and trust in Internet of Things: The road ahead.Computer Networks,76(4), pp.146-164. Stojmenovic, I., Wen, S., Huang, X. and Luan, H., (2016). An overview of fog computing and its security issues.Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience,28(10), pp.2991-3005. Sultan, N., (2014). Making use of cloud computing for healthcare provision: Opportunities and challenges.International Journal of Information Management,34(2), pp.177-184. Sun, Y., Zhang, J., Xiong, Y. and Zhu, G., (2014). Data security and privacy in cloud computing.International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks,10(7), p.190-195.
Thursday, April 2, 2020
The purpose of this term paper was to focus on carbonated beverages (Pepsi and Mojo Cola). Theterm paper represents the different types of marketing activites undertaken by both products tohold customers of BangladeshThis report also gives an overview of beverage industry in Bangladesh and also an overview ofÃ Pepsi and Mojo colas parent companies. Akij Food Beverage Ltd. has been established at a beautiful site Krishnapura, Dhamrai ofÃ Dhaka. It has come with the best food beverage in Bangladesh. There are various types of drink. Mojo is the brand name of cola, Lemu is the brand name of Lemon and Speed is the brand name ofÃ energy drink. Immediately after the introduction of the brand it became very popular among itsconsumer because of the high quality and intensive distribution in every nook and corner of thecountry. Checky Monkey is the brand name of banana chips produced from this factory. We will write a custom essay sample on Bangladeshi Soft Drinks Market or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It also isÃ becoming popular chips in Bangladesh. Most of our Raw materials come from various foreigncountries. The quality is very strictly controlled. At every stage, non standard products are rejected. On the other hand Pepsi Co. is a multinational company. Originated in The USA Carolina in 1898. Since then it has been able to stay in competition with its biggest rival Coca-Cola. Pepsi, now is aworldwide brand and consumed by millions of people. Pepsi was introduced in Bangladesh byTranscom Group. As a corporate citizen Pepsico believes it has a responsibility to contribute to thequality of life in our communities. Transcom Beverage Ltd has put into action this philosophythrough support of social agencies, projects and programs and the scope of this support is extensiveand it has not been difficult to blend with this philosophy since the TRANSCOM group alsofollowed such a corporate ideology Chapter:1 1. 1: INTRODUCTION (Beverage industry of Bangladesh) After independence of Bangladesh the food habit of people has been changed a lot. Besides ourÃ traditional food consumer of Bangladesh like to take western food also after 1980s. As a result ofÃ global marketing this was not too hard for the consumers. Different foreign food companies wereestablished in Bangladesh. Beverage industry is one of them. But more interestingly we donÃ¢â¬â¢tknow beverage is also our cultural food because beverage doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean only carbonated drinks. Yoghurt, soup and lacchi are also beverage of our own tradition which consumed for the last 100years in Bangladesh. But carbonated beverage is new in Bangladesh and today our research is oncarbonated beverage market in Bangladesh and consumer reaction to it. Carbonated beverage entered into our market in the later part of 1980. At that time there were onlyfew companies in Bangladesh. But by the change of time and western culture influences itÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ become very popular in Bangladesh. By year 2000 more than 12 Beverage Company operatingÃ business in Bangladesh and most of them are foreign companies. Bangladesh Beverage: 2006)At present there are 19 beverage companies operating business in Bangladesh. They are: 1. Transcom Beverage Ltd. 2. Sun Crest Beverage Industries Ltd 3. Abdul Monem Limited 4. K. Rahman and Company 5. Eastern Beverage Industries Ltd. 6. Sanowara Drinks and Bev. md. Ltd. 7. Asia Business Ltd. 8. Desh Beverage Co. Ltd 9. Northern Beverage Ltd. 10. National Be verage Industries Ltd. 11. Bridge Corporation Limited 12. Tezarat Enterprise 13. Southern Beverage Ltd. 14. K. Rahman and Company 15. Bangladesh Beverage Ind. Ltd. 16. Dhaka Beverage Industries Ltd 17. Sunny Foods and Beverage Ltd. 18. Tabani Beverage Co. Ltd. 19. K. Rahman and Company 1. 2: Akij Food Beverage Ltd: Akij Food Beverage Ltd. has been established at a beautiful site Krishnapura, Dhamrai ofÃ Dhaka. It has come with the best food beverage in Bangladesh. There are various types of drink. Mojo is the brand name of cola, Lemu is the brand name of Lemon and Speed is the brand name ofÃ energy drink. Immediately after the introduction of the brand it became very popular among itsconsumer because of the high quality and intensive distribution in every nook and corner of thecountry. Checky Monkey is the brand name of banana chips produced from this factory. It also is becomingÃ popular chips in Bangladesh. Most of our Raw materials come from various foreign countries. The quality is very strictlycontrolled. At every stage, non standard products are rejected. 1. 3: Transcom Beverage limited: On the basis of an exclusive Franchise for Bangladesh from Pepsico USA, TBL acquired threemodern bottling plants at Dahaka, Chittagong and Bogra from BBIL Dhaka; Chittagong and NBIL,Bogra; in March 2000. TBL manufactures the famous range of beverages-Pepsi, 7up, Mirinda. As a corporate citizen Pepsico believes it has a responsibility to contribute to the quality of life in ourÃ communities. TBL has put into action this philosophy through support of social agencies, projectsand programs and the scope of this support is extensive and it has not been difficult to blend withthis philosophy since the TRANSCOM group followed such a corporate ideology. Chapter:2 2. 1: OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This term paper would focus on market segmentation, marketing mix, consumer attitudes towardsÃ beverage drinks of Bangladesh (i. e. Mojo and Pepsi). It should be noticed that this report has beenmade in the context of Bangladeshi market and different segmentations and promotional activitesanalyzed in this report are solely based on the Bangladeshi consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective . E. g. It willdiffer from country to country. If Mojo becomes multinational and goes to countries like K. S. A,Libya, The U. S. A, The U. K. Then the current activities undertaken by Mojo has to be changed inorder to stay in worldwide competition. Because, cultures vary from country to country. 2. 2: Source of information Due to limited time maximum data were collected from theinternet, shop to shop survey was done in order to estimate the sales of these beverages. 2. 3: Limitation The major drawback while preparing this report was inadequate time; as a resultthe report lacks some potential information. Moreover, due to class schedule clash in depthresearch on the topic was hampered. Some informations were not disclosed by Mojo dealers(Palashi, Azimpur) as they considered these informations to be confidential. Information on Pepsi was gathered from the internet and local shops as Pepsi is a multinational company. Adequateinformation about Pepsi is not available from the context of Bangladesh. Chapter:3 3. 1: Mojo (Information): Mojo, is a brand of Akij Food and Beverage Ltd. , a sister concern ofÃ Ã prominent group of companies of Bangladesh, Akij Group. In the year 2007 Mojo was themarket challenger in Bangladeshi cola market with a sales of about 52 crores BDT. The brandwas launched in 14th April, 2005 targeting the youth of Bangladesh who like the Bangladeshitrends. All there years, Mojo is doing quite good in the market and competing well with otherÃ Ã brands. Mojos pricing is its advantage but it has to improve its image product quality. Unfortunately, Mojo is lagging behind due to inadequate promotional activities. E. g. Slogan,names meaning etc. It has also failed to communicate its own positioning the target consumers. However, still now Mojo has the potential to recover its own position (according tosurvey). Consumer behaviour such as perception, attitude, self-orientation and life style, thisreport has found out some drawbacks and recommended some affective strategies to recoverÃ those issues successfully. 3. 2: Market Situation Mojo is not far behind in order to anticipating the current market situation. After being inthe introduction stage for a short period of time Mojo is successfully now in the growthstage and doing well for its good eminence and unique marketing effort. With theintention of increasing sale and obtaining market share Mojo is targeting and creating awell company position into the market. To collect information regarding market, serviceÃ performance, competition and distribution Mojo is always developing promotionalstrategies, campaigns and carrying out market surveys. 4 April 2010, Mojo arranged afair and the duration was three days. It was held on field of Pranthapoth. They welcomedthe Bangla year 1417 very nicely. Because who had a bottle of Mojo, then that persongot the entry in the concert without any ticket. 3. 3: Target Market Most of the soft drink companies are now targeting the young generation and indeed this is the besttarget for any soft drink companies. Keeping this thing on mind Mojo has decided to targetespecially the young generation along with the people from various types of socio-economicclasses. Akij Group is now offering extensive distribution channel in order to capture and makesure the proper distribution of Mojo so that young generation can easily avail it where ever they arein the country. Last time we saw in Mojo advertise that an old couple were sharing a bottle of Mojo. So, they cleared that it is not only a product for the young people but also their target is alsosenior citizens. Though Mojo is hardly preferred by Old aged people. PROFILE OF THE TARGET MARKET Cola drinks usually follow an undifferentiated marketing strategy to target their consumer. Keeping this fact in mind, we conducted a sample survey by selecting random sample fromdifferent places. The following discussion will attempt to analyze the profile of the target marketÃ based on the sample group. 3. 4: Demographic Factors Age Age is the major determinants in targeting the consumers. MOJO reflects the Bangladeshi cultureand it represents youth. From our survey, we have found that MOJO is most preferred in the agegroup between 20-25 years (85% of 100). Moreover, the least MOJO preference comes fromtwo age groups: 25-35 years and 35-45 years, about 1%. Sex Beverage is used for thirst-quenching purpose and this product is gender neutral, meaning there isno such kind of obligation to consume the product for male or female. However, from our surveyoutcome, we have found that 71% of the consumers are male and 29% are female from 100. Allthe respondents are from urban location. MARKETING MIX: 4PÃ¢â¬â¢S OF MOJO5. 1 Product The product MOJO cola has come with the following variations in the market- Ã¢â¬ ¢ 250 ml bottle Ã¢â¬ ¢ 500 ml bottle Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1000 ml or 1 liter bottle Ã¢â¬ ¢ 150 ml can The MOJO Cola has been made with a proper technology. So there is no chance to occurÃ fluctuation in taste. The cola drinks contain a very strong taste which can compete with the marketleader Coca- Cola and RC cola. Other Factors Meaning of MOJO Meaning of MOJO is the idea or feeling the respondent have instantly after hearing the name orÃ analyzing it. To 60% respondents, MOJO means fun or enjoyment. To 14% it means nothing. Inaddition, other 26% varies within music or art, sports, thirst passion etc. Competition Soft drink market always offer high level of competition among companies. Because,soft drink is a fast moving consumer good and its demand always fluctuate based onseveral reasons (E. . Taste, weather conditions, etc. ). It included the degree of competition andintensity of competition. So in that case both the degree and intensity of competition are very highfor Mojo. Because the market it was operating was already touched by big companies such asCoke, Pepsi, Royal Crown Cola. Surprisingly, these giant companies are considering Mojo, as aravenous competitor in the market. So i tÃ¢â¬â¢s a good news for Mojo that competitors like Ã¢â¬Å" Coca Cola, Pepsi are thinking about Mojo consciously. It is because Mojo has already grabbed good portionof Bangladeshi beverage market share. Mojo believes that they have the strong distribution power,creative marketers, financial power and quality to grab competitions market share as well asincrease their own selling. Before preparing the term paper we made a brief market survey and we saw that in every popular market of Dhaka city, wholesalers are very active and demand is veryhigh. Distribution The strongest point of MOJO is their intensive distribution channel. They make this thingÃ possible because Akij Group of industries especially their beverage sector has a profoundlogistic and supply chain management system. So they can easily go to door to door ofÃ their target consumers. They believe that delivering products to consumer hands is notsufficient or convenient enough that is why for near future betterment they are trying todevelop their distribution channel in such manner that they can easily make theirÃ Ã potential customer in to actual customer. And we must say that the dealer of a particularÃ territory is really expert and the do their job on the time. Objecetives Issues The promotional campaign can undertake 3 types of objectives:1. To inform,2. To persuade3. To remind. In the case of Mojo, the campaign will basically focus on persuasion, since MOJOis in maturity stage of its life cycle and will try to spread out its current perception in urbanyouthful lives. The advertising objective for MOJO is to persuade the target audience to make aÃ purchase and to obtain 8% increase in sales. Now a day, Mojo is not a new product. And for thatreason, previously the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s target was to make positioning about Mojo because it was a newÃ product and please try it. But now Mojo is in growth stage; so it is trying to maximize the marketshare and retaining the market share is also important here Advertising Strategy Advertising is a challenging factor for Akij GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s Mojo. As the sales of Mojo highly relies onadvertising. It has to be done in such a way which is convincing, attractive to people, which willrun on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind 24/7. Developing an effective advertising and promotional campaign mustselect the right spokesperson to deliver a convincing message and the appropriate channels orÃ media. As part of the development of the advertising strategy of Mojo, all the advertisingcampaigns will try to communicate the same message to meet the advertising objective as set anddiscussed previously. Their main logan is Ã¢â¬Å"Mojo Ontor e Ontor eÃ¢â¬ and for that reason they alwaystry to make every ad including this slogan. Stimulus Characteristics Logo The logo of MOJO is attractive and representing the youth although they did not forgot about theaged people. Therefore, this helps them to get a good result. Soul feeling All the multinational soft drink companies -showing advertisements are made abroad. In thiscase, MOJO cola differentiated themselves. They are making the ads in our country, as they wantto be the cult brand. As they are, doing this so people can feel that it is our cola and I am buyingmy soft drink that in terms help them to feel good. Therefore, people have a soft corner for them intheir mind. Packaging Packaging also helps in the perception process. Attractive package can grab peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. MOJO cola know this and they are concentrating on it. The two most critical job of packaging are: Capture Attention The colorful packaging catches the attention instantly. People like colorful things and they go forÃ colorful things. That is why within a short time MOJO cola got the attention of the target aspect. Convey Meaning The colorful packaging conveys the meaning that MOJO is a youthful product. Mixing up theÃ brand with colors, which have a meaning, is sensible. That gives people meaning and they went forÃ it. CONSUMERSÃ¢â¬â¢ LEARNING MOJO Learning is any change in the content or organization of long- term memory and/or behavior. Learning about soft drinks is a low- involvement learning situation. Consumer behavior is largelylearned behavior. Learning about MOJO Cola is for the most part low involvement learningstate of affairs. Controls Just like all other companies Mojo is also very much concern about controlling theirÃ monetary and operating cost. That is why every month Mojo conduct Quality assurancesurvey, Sales figure monitoring, Feedback from Retailers and Sales force not only bytheir employees but also by students from different universities by offering exclusiveincentives and gift items. They evaluate their inventory, quality, acceptance of Mojo fromdifferent perspectives. By keep checking these things Mojo can stay in the market by notonly minimizing their cost and expense by also maximizing their revenue and profits. Weknow its very much time consuming and expense become high, but to know the currentsituation the company must do it. Social responsibilities Akij group of industries not only concern about increasing their sales, capture market share andgaining profit but also concern to do something for the social betterment. Through out theirÃ campaign Mojo has always been the pioneer in order to come across to help old, orphanage andhomeless street children. The Group has been running a considerable orphanage free of charge indistrict town. The Group has also acquired a modern mother children hospital previously ownedÃ by Save the Children (UK). The hospital is being operated as a non-profitable concern by Ad-DinWelfare Trust. Pricing policy: The pricing policy of Mojo has been done very carefully. Mojo has manycompetitors (e. g. Coca Cola, Pepsi) in the market. Compared to them Mojo has set pricereasonably. The pricing of Mojo is discussed below: ? Litre - Tk 14/- ? Litre - Tk 25/-[pic] 1 Litre - Tk 45/- 2 Litre - Tk 75/- Chapter:4 4. 1: Pepsi (Information): Pepsi was first introduced as Brads Drink in New Bern, North Carolinain 1898 by Caleb Bradham, who made it at his home where the drink was sold. It was later namedPepsi Cola, possibly due to the digestive enzyme pepsin and kola nuts used in the recipe. Bradhams ought to create a fountain drink that was delicious and would aid in digestion and boost energy. In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse. That year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of syrup. The next year, Pepsi was sold in six-ouncebottles, and sales increased to 19,848 gallons. In 1909, automobile race pioneer Barney Oldfieldwas the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola, describing it as A bully drink refreshing,invigorating, a fine bracer before a race. The advertising theme Delicious and Healthful wasthen used over the next two decades. In 1926, Pepsi received its first logo redesign since theoriginal design of 1905. In 1929, the logo was changed again. In 1931, at the depth of the Great Depression, the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy inlarge part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on wildly fluctuating sugar prices as aresult of World War I. Assets were sold and Roy C. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark. Eightyears later, the company went bankrupt again. Pepsis assets were then purchased by Charles Guth,the President of Loft Inc. Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores that contained sodafountains. He sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores fountains after Coke refused to give him adiscount on syrup. Guth then had Lofts chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula. On three separate occasions between 1922 and 1933, the Coca-Cola Company was offered theopportunity to purchase the Pepsi-Cola company and it declined on each occasion. Ingredients: In the United States, Pepsi is made with carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup,caramel color, sugar, Phosphoric acid, caffeine, citric acid and natural flavors. A can of Pepsi (12 flounces) has 41 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar), 30 mg of odium, 0 grams of fat, 0 gramsof protein, 38 mg of caffeine and 150 calories. The caffeine-free Pepsi-Cola contains the sameingredients but without the caffeine. The original Pepsi-Cola recipe was available from documents filed with the court at the time thatthe Pepsi-Cola Company went bankrupt in 1929. The original formula contained neither cola norÃ caffeine. 4. 2: Market Situatio n Pepsi Cola is a reknowned brand all over the world. Its demand is increasing each year. Pepsi is incompetition in Bangladesh for many years. Its major competitiors are Coca Cola, RC Cola andnow Mojo is progressing in competition. The main of Pepsi just like any other beverage companyis to make supernormal profit by increasing sales. Not only that, Pepsi carries out promotionalactivities throughout the year. Ã¢â¬Å"Transcom Beverages Ltd (TBL), the franchisee of PepsiCo International, has won the Ã¢â¬Å"Bottler ofÃ the Year AwardÃ¢â¬ for 2009 in PepsiCo International Annual Conference in recognition of itsoutstanding business results. Latifur Rahman, chairman and managing director of TBL, received the award from SanjeevChadha, regional CEO of PepsiCo, and Katrina Kaif, an Indian film actress, at a function inThailand recently, said a statement. Transcom Beverages, which won the award for the third time, bottles, distributes and markets allPepsiCo brands such as Pepsi, 7up, Mirinda, Mountain Dew, Slice, Diet Pepsi and 7up Light inBangladesh. Present on the occasion from TBL were Arshad Waliur Rahman, director, Golam QuddusChowdhury, executive director and CEO, and Khurshid Irfan Chowdhury, general manager. Tejinder Khurana, country manager of PepsiCo International, and Goutam Bhattacharjee, territorydevelopment manager of TBL, were also awarded with Ã¢â¬Å"Ring of HonourÃ¢â¬ for their performances in2009. Ã¢â¬ [ Ã Daily Star : Sunday, January 24, 2010] 4. : Target Market like any other beverage competitor in Bangladesh, Pepsis main target is young generation assoft drinks are mainly preferred by youths. Despite local competition Pepsi has maintained itsreputation by chargining relatively high price. Within last fifteen years Pepsi has reached the peak by offering extensive distribution channel in order to make sure t he proper distribution of Pepsi sothat people can easily avail it where ever they go. Pepsi customers are mostly young groupÃ between the ages of 14 to 30 and also target at school, colleges, universities, home, restaurant,hotel and stores. . 4: Market Segmentation Positioning Beverages Soft Drinks: Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Royal CrownCola Juices: Pulpy, Nestle, Fruito Local Drinks: Mecca Cola, Mojo Cola Energy Drinks: Red Bull, Power 4. 5: Competition Pepsi has many rivals in the market. Pepsi considers Coca Cola and Royal Crown Cola as theirÃ Ã biggest competitiors. However in recent years local carbonated drinks like Mojo Cola and MeccaCola, etc are giving tough competitions to giant beverage companies like Pepsi and Coca Cola. 4. 6: Distribution Pepsi undergoes massive distribution all around the country. The distribution channel plays animportant role in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Pepsi has distributors in all districts. Due to lack of datathe distribution process of Pepsi cannot be discussed. Objectives and issues Pepsi is in its maturity stage. Meaning, everyone knows about this beverage. All it has to do isremind people to consume this drink. The main objective of Pepsi is to make profit by theincrememnt in sales. By means of organizing concerts/trade fairs, Pepsi informs people about theÃ product. Advertising strategy Advertising is an important issue for Pepsi. Its competitors undertake massive advertising todominate in market. Equally, Pepsi does the same thing for survival. Most of Pepsis advertising isIndian. Meaning, Indian ads are translated in Bangla. By doing so, Pepsi is able to advertising cost. The main aim of Pepsi has always been to deliver a convincing message via media. Pepsi usestelevision, newspaper, billboards as its advertising medium Controls Ã¢â¬Å"Quality At every level of Pepsi-Cola Company, we take great care to ensure that the highest standards are met in everything we do. In our products, packaging, marketing and advertising, we strive forÃ excellence because our consumers expect and deserve nothing less. We promise to work towardcontinuous improvement in all areas of our organization. At every step of our manufacturing and bottling process, strict quality controls are followed toensure that Pepsi-Cola products meet the same high standards of quality that consumers have cometo expect and value from us. We also follow strict quality control procedures during themanufacturing and filling of our packages. Each bottle and can undergoes a thorough inspectionand testing process. Containers are then rinsed and quickly filled through a high-speed, state-of-the-art process that helps prevent any foreign material from entering the product. Additionalquality control measures help to ensure the integrity of Pepsi-Cola products throughout thedistribution process, from warehouse to store shelf. Ã¢â¬ [Extracted from http://www. pepsi. com/] Social responsibilities Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental SupportPepsi and the entire PepsiCo family embrace our responsibility to be good stewards of our planetsnatural resources. We begin by understanding our environmental footprint and then work to findways to reduce it. Were focused on Energy, Water and Waste areas where we know we can makethe greatest difference. Ã¢â¬ [Extracted fromhttp://www. pepsi. com/faqs. php? ection=environmental_support] Pricing policy Despite having many competitors, Pepsi is charging high price in comparison to local competitorslike Mojo. ? Litre - Tk 18/- ?Litre - Tk 30/ 1 Litre - Tk 55/ 2 Litre - Tk 90/- Product differentiation In Bangladesh Pepsi offers product differentiation in comparison to Mojo cola by offeringPepsi Diet in the market. From this side Mojo is a little weak because these days most people arehealth conscious, diabetes patients, etc. They prefer Pepsi Diet which does not contain sugar. Pepsi Diet is available in two sizes. Litre - Tk 30/- 1 Litre - Tk 55/- Though PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s offering differentiation by offering Pepsi Diet it is not charging premium price. The price of Pepsi Diet is same as Pepsi Cola Thus, Pepsi is having competitive advantage over AkijÃ¢â¬â¢s Mojo Cola. Swot Analysis: Mojo Cola: Ã¢â¬ ¢Strengths: Brand image : Akij group is already a established brand name. So there already exists astrong brand image of the company. So if we launch any product under this brand name then itautomatically accept by the consumers. Quality : Most of their raw materials come from various foreign countries. The quality is verystrictly controlled. At every stage, non standard products are rejected. So we can say that howwell they are aware about their products quality. Strong distribution networkÃ : Akij group has a strong distribution network and this isone of the most strongest competitive advantages for them. They make product available all overÃ the country through their strong distribution channel of retailers and whole sellers. Ã¢â¬ ¢Weakness: The weakest point of akij group is that if any product sells fall due to poor quality then it willalso affect the other products of other brands. Opportunity: Increasing demand: As people are engaging more in taking beverage product, the demand isincreasing day by day for this kind of product category. Ã¢â¬ ¢Threat: Akij group have a number of competitors especially under Akij Food Beverage Ltd such asPran juice, Shezan juice, Acme juice. This competition is very high and works as a threat for AkijFood Beverage Ltd. Pepsi: The streng ths, the weaknesses, the opportunities and the threats of Pepsi. 1. The advantages of Pepsi-Cola1) Firstly, Pepsi has stayed in this market for almost one century. So they are so experienced andstationed in peoples mind deeply. Now no one doesnt know the brand Pepsi-Cola Whenever thename Pepsi is heard, people will conjure up the image of fresh and cool drink .2) Secondly, Pepsi-Cola is not only in high quality, cool and fresh but also have a competitiveÃ price. 3) Thirdly. Pepsi is such an experienced powerful global company, Which has a basic of a greatfund. So it has the ability to place an idle sum of money to the promotion. We can see that theadvertisement of Pepsi-Cola is so attractive. It also invited the top famous people to advertise forÃ it. ) Pepsi also compares with the competitors and find their disadvantages to update its own quality,flavor and also package promptly in order to satisfy the consumers need. This is the biggestadvantage of Pepsi company. It is the most popular one. Pepsi company also produce the Diet-Cola to meet the people whomore concern their health. And it just changes the design of the package of Pepsi-Cola. 2. The disadvantages of Pepsi-ColaBut we cannot consider things just on one side. Still there are some disadvantages existing inPepsi-Cola . A survey suggests that 32% people prefer the package of Pepsi-Cola. So the design ofÃ Pepsi-Colas package is not as attractive as Coca-cola. It still needs to be improved. We suggestthat the package needs to be designed more colorful to attract peoples attention. 3. Although in the cola market there are many competitors, Pepsi still has the opportunity toenlarge its market share because the cola in the market is quite monotonic. Most of the end user isyoung people. There are still some people who do not like the taste of the cola. So we can try to provide some other taste of cola such as adding some lemon juice. We can change the flavor inorder to meet different taste of different people. . As to the threats, all of us know that Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola have had the competition forÃ about 80 years. Although Pepsi-Cola have won several times during this competition, the marketshare of Pepsi-cola is a little bit smaller than Coca-Cola. Besides, there are many other competitorslike Mojo. In MojoÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisement we can see the reflection of ou r culture. It is well known thatBangladesh is a patriotic nation. So these words can really catch Bangladeshi peoples heart. Andthese local colas flavor is more suitable for Bangladeshis. So it cannot be ignored. Recommendation: Mojo: After getting informations from the internet and local shops. It seems that Mojo has certainlackings. Mojo is local brand so its going to be hard for Mojo to stay in competition with Pepsi. Mojo can provide offers like Ã¢â¬Å"buy one get one freeÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"win a carÃ¢â¬ , coupons, etc. All these activitieswill rise interests in people to consume more Mojo in order to get something. By offering suchÃ promotions, Mojo may be able to give tough competitions to Pepsi. Mojo can persuade people via advertising. E. g. It can convey messages that Ã¢â¬Å"Mojo is BangladeshiDrink, We Bangladeshis drink our drinksÃ¢â¬ . Not only that, motivating employees will help Akij Beverages to reach its peak. E. g. Employeescan be given fringe benefits, promotions, monthly free medical check-up, etc. 24 SUGGESTIVE PROMOTIONAL TOOLS Billboards MOJO cola must concentrate on billboard advertising, for this at first they have to increase thenumber of billboards around the country. They have to create billboards with catchy look so that itcan grab the attention of the target aspect. They must make colorful and relevant billboards so thatÃ people can find out what they want to tell them. At last, they have to place the billboards in theright place so that target aspect can have their full concentrate in it. Paper Ads The number of paper ads should have to be increased. Otherwise, they cannot make mass peopleaware about their product. It should also contain high imagery, relevant with product MOJO cola. TVCs The frequencies of the TV ads have to be increased. People who watch TV regularly are seekingfor innovative things made by the marketers. They pretty much bored with the traditional ads. So ifÃ MOJO cola bring new thing with their ads them it will be a turning point for their sale. People willget more interest in their product and as a result, they can be the loyal customer of this product. SoTV ads should be brought with a new format, with more new things so that it can catch the targetaspect with the new ones. Sponsorship Till now MOJO cola make sponsorship of few events like concerts, Ã¢â¬Å"nabanno utsav, banglanoboborsho, etcÃ¢â¬ . they should include cyber cafe, canteens of university, fast food shop and otherÃ Ã places where people goes frequently. By doing so they can be with the target audience and we illfind more aware people. Sales Promotion They should in for massive sales promotion to attract people from other drinks Pepsi: 1) Pepsi-Cola should improve the design of the package first. As it is advertised as the choice ofÃ new generation, the design must be looked young and fresh. So the color should be more sharpand attractive. 2) As the flavor and ingredients of cola in the market are similar and the most active consumer isthe young people, we can diversify the Pepsi production to meet the different need of theconsumers. That is customer-orientated. 3) Besides the Diet cola for the health conscious people, we can have many other new choices. ForÃ example, we can create a new kind of cola more suitable for children. Maybe we can add theVitamins or some nutritious element that are necessary to children. Or we can create a new flavorÃ like mint-cola. 4) However, pricing should not be reduced to an extent where initial investment cannot berecovered. So, pricing finance has to be done carefully. Conclusion Mojo People prefer MOJOÃ¢â¬â¢s pricing but it has to improve its image in status and quality issues. Unfortunately, MOJO is lagging behind due to inadequate communication of its brand elementslike slogan, nameÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning etc. It has also failed to communicate its own positioning to the targetconsumers. However, still now MOJO has the chance to recover its own position because about70% of the target customers (according to the survey result) are potential and have not constructedtheir belief structure for MOJO. For some particular aspects of consumer behavior such asÃ perception, attitude, self-orientation and life style etc, those recommended strategies provided withthe report will be supportive to recover those issues successfully if MOJO can apply thosesuggestive marketing tools. 6 Pepsi Being in such a tense competition with other beverages, Pepsi-Cola should not take the direct andtough attack upon any of them. The best wad is to keep a peaceful relationship with it and alwayscompare with others, We should find their disadvantages and show our advantages on this aspect. Then by and by, the people would think ours is better Of course the most important rule is toimprove the product, lower the price i n comparison to other competitors to meet the consumers.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
A nation for the massacre of Jews in Europe The period between 1939 to1941 remains a historical predisposition for the Jews and Nazi-Germans as it was the period of the Holocaust. It was a time that the rivalry between the Jews and Nazi emanated. In light of this, many Jews were murdered by people whom they had lived cohesively. The details of those events are detailed by two books written by Jan Gross and Jan Karski respectively. Published on diverse dates, these books chronicle the events that happened in a realistic approach.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The events that catapulted the mass murders of Polish Jews are chronicled in Jan T. GrossÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Neighbors: The destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland by fellow citizens in a village resided by the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s in Poland. In the book published in 2001, the author uses pieces of eye witnesses accoun ts to produce the book that received criticism across the geographical divide. Murderous acts were carried out by people on Jedwabnes existing Jews. It was in 1941 and the Jews knew the people who carried out the act well. They had lived cohesively but on this fateful day, their friends turned to foes. The murderous acts were executed in an inhuman way. For example, the Jewish population in Poland were confined in a barn then set on fire. On the other hand, the Story of a secret state, written by Jan Karski provides a personal experience of the Nazi-Jewish mass killings in Poland. Karski was a doctoral student in Poland. He gives an account of how the killings were executed in his book. Published in1944, the book delves information and the details of the massacre from a personal view. Karski narrates that while in a group of other Polish soldiers, they were held hostage by Russian soldiers under wooden barns. In light of this, Karski plotted an escape with the help of fellow hostage , Lieutenant Kurpios. He underwent numerous traps and landed himself as a Polish underground in various countries including France. He travelled to London to inform the Polish government in exile there on the pains of the Jewish people. In his experiences he encountered the difficulties that the Jewish community was undergoing in their foreign land. Critique GrossÃ¢â¬â¢s book has arguably led to a foray of criticism from various quarters. These quarters have been ethnologists and historians. Gross relied heavily on third party knowledge with minimal consultations in other study tools such as historical facts in archives. Historians argue that Grosss work is more like a journal article and not as a work of history.Advertising Looking for term paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, he uses the setting of burning barn of Jedwabne to construct Polish-Jewish relations. He arguably focuses on p articulars to make generalizations, simply known as inductive reasoning. For instance, he makes generalizations on limited data. Moreover, the book is so shallow in giving the details of the massacre. It largely details the attacks with minimal literature on the reasons for the attacks. A casual reader with prior knowledge of the atrocities committed might find it hard to understand the book. For example, the book only chronicles the events of the massacre, making it partial. This implies that it looks at the massacre from a one-sided perspective without giving the reader the other side of the coin  Another major flaw in Grosss work was his alienation of facts that the pre-war Jewish- Polish relations had considerable effects on the Jedwabne massacre. He largely depended on the accounts of a single Jew to analyze the effects and chronology of the war. Gross singled out that the wars experienced in the town were more detrimental to the relations of the Jewish and Polish individual s unlike others in the regions. In his analytical book, he only focused on those wars and did not discuss into details their etiology. In light of this, he provided a one-sided approach into the massacre. For example, he could have arguably detailed the reasons that led into the massacre and not only victimizing one side  Story of a secret state The plot analysis in the book is over riddled by the monotonous description of his encounters although it was a personal experience narration by Jan Karski. Moreover, personal narrations are overly dotted with fictitious parts. He hugely, just like Gross relied on his personal experiences eluding other important historical literature that could have helped to shape the story  Even though the story was aimed at propagating a historical ideology, it takes the avenue of literature story telling genres such as narratives. By including personal experiences heavily on the story he washes out the historical salt in the massacre. For example, he takes considerable space in the book to discuss his intricacies in the war as opposed to telling the reader about the happenings. In light of this, Karski only shapes the discussion from his experiences without involving any other secondary source to spice up his story. Historical Context The book has analytically given a green light on the events that shaped todayÃ¢â¬â¢s German-Jews rivalry. Although it analyzed the Holocaust from a particular to a generalized standpoint, it arguably shaped the research platform on the rivalry between the Nazi-Germans and Jews. In light of this, the book articulates the birth rivalry due to the murderous acts committed against Jews. In this regard, the enmity tries to articulate as they happened in real times.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Historians argue that for an author to claim to write h istory, acknowledging the works of other writers in the same subject is not only important but also shapes the overall work. It gives the work a background to rely on. For example, it takes account of a sole soldier to tell the story without putting emphasis into secondary literature. Such actions water down the premises and subsequent conclusions that emanate from the historical-driven works. Usage of the same would have created a critical ingredient to achievement recognition in the story. However, Gross alluded to these vital precautions thus deeming his work rather a literature oriented story than a historical one. Story of a secret state Similarly to Grosss work Karski left out a critical avenue for historical representations. He focused on narration as opposed to prose in telling out the story of the massacre. In light of this, he skipped numerous historical instances experienced in the course of his encounters in Poland to bring out a rather weak historical hypothesis. For example, he only uses his personal experience to tell the story. Although it brings the reader close to the events that happened in the Jedwabne massacre, it lacked historical taste. However, it would be unrealistic to abandon the reality that the book has arguably helped in shaping the historical background of the Holocaust. Historians articulate the books as the avenues that enabled the realization of the Holocaust. For instance, after the production of the books, the Holocaust events became realities to many leaders notably in the political and religious spheres. This is because the books were published after the Holocaust since Karski worked as an undercover agent. Conclusion In conclusion, the two books have provided a credible analysis. By using the personal accounts of individuals, the books have shed light on the intricacies of the Holocaust and also providing critical historical literature for future generations. By reading the books, an individual relates with the events like they happened yesterday due to the clear usage of the language. Moreover, the books have used good language to be understood by all individuals regardless of the academic disciplines. For example, the books can provide a critical grounding for not only history scholars but also religious and theological studies. Religious and theological scholars can effectively apply the knowledge gained from the book to analyze the religious distribution in the world. Crowell, Samuel. The debate about Neighbors. n.d. Web.Advertising Looking for term paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gross, J., T. Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland, Boston: Penguin Books, 2002. Holocaust. Literature of the Holocaust. n.d. Web. Janet, J. Story of a secret state. 2009. Web. Telegraph. Story of a secret State. 2011. Web. Footnotes Janet, J. Story of a secret state. Telegraph. Story of a secret State. Holocaust. Literature of the Holocaust. Crowell, Samuel. The debate about Neighbors. Gross, J, T. Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland, Boston: Penguin Books.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
HRM Practices that affect the Annovation process - Dissertation Example For example, a study conducted by Laursen and Foss (2003) of 1,900 Dutch business organizations found that effective HRM practices not only had a positive influence on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance, but also had a positive influence on a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation. Researchers have generally taken two approaches to explaining how HRM practices have a positive influence on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall performance: systems and strategic perspectives (Bowen & Ostroff, 2004). The systems approach to researching HRM practices and its link to organizational performance focuses on the impact of the cumulative value of HRM practices. The strategic perspective analyses how individual HRM practices impact firm performance. The underlying concept is the belief that HRM practices are designed to Ã¢â¬Å"develop employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills, knowledge and motivationÃ¢â¬ so that Ã¢â¬Å"employees behave in ways that are instrumental to the implementation of a particular strategyÃ¢â ¬ (Bowen & Ostroff, 2004, pp. 203-204). ... Empirical research in the literature substantiates this assumption. (Joseph & Dai, 2009; Zeidan, 2006). Wang and Zang (2005) conducted a two-part study consisting of field study on HRM practices and its maim compartments among Chinese companies and partnerships and case studies on entrepreneurship frameworks from the perspective of strategic HRM practices. The research findings indicate that there is a positive link between strategic HRM practices and firm innovation (Wang & Zang, 2005). Businesses currently operate in an environment where knowledge continuously changes at a rapid rate. Thus, innovation is crucially important for building and sustaining an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s success and as a result, Ã¢â¬Å"the human capital of the organization is an issue of increasing importanceÃ¢â¬ (Jorgensen, Becker & Matthews, 2009, p. 451). Essentially, strategic human resource management by definition is directly and indirectly linked to firm innovation. According to Sims (2007) strategic HRM is defined as: ...the linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational culture that foster innovation and flexibility (p. 323). Armstrong (2011) argues that competitiveness in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market has placed firms under increasing pressure to adopt innovation as a key business model. Innovation models involve changes that organizations should implement to become and remain competitive and how they may improve organizational performance generally. These changes not only involve people, but also have an impact on people. Employees are engaged in both the planning and implementation phases of organizational change. Thus HRM is critical for perfecting an innovative business model, because HRM is