Wednesday, August 26, 2020

HISTORY( read carefully and then start writing the paper) Essay

HISTORY( read cautiously and afterward begin composing the paper) - Essay Example Majority rules system in genuine sense doesn't have 1 particular significance. It is made of parts or segments with the goal for it to be finished. Numerous nations have not experienced majority rules system particularly Africa, Middle East, some Asian countries, etc. In this paper I will harp on America’s majority rule government, I will eat up the cause and the means it took so as to develop the popular government. Majority rules system is comprised of four sections : That is majority rule government as known by most Americans. Before every one of these opportunities that masses appreciate came to fruition, there were forms. America has crept for quite a long time to where it is presently, and en route it was blessed enough to have presidents like Lincoln who by all may and shrewdness had the guts to defend majority rules system when rationale opposed this. The common war was just excursion attempted horrendously. This Civil War of 1830s that was dreaded in America was a contention among liberal and the traditionalist factions.â Each side had the capability of field state armies and European-style armies.â The unbelievable similitude on the rival sides, in every district, guided them into blood misfortune and sharpness. The preservationists and the dissidents battled it out in 1830s. This war spread in all aspects of North America. Be that as it may, the bloodiest battling was focused in Mexico. Their adversary answers to the inquiry uncovered what those gatherings were really battling about:â â That was in the eighteenth century, yet the match to full majority rule government coordinated on to 21st century, martin Luther drove an unrest of sorts in battling for equity, it was likewise wicked and exploitative however the match needed to proceed. This was done in compatibility of the above named parts which we can say, they have been accomplished. For majority rule government to exist some social convictions, for example, the duty of ladies in the public eye and the job of the poor in the public arena, needed to change uncertainly (Richard and Gaston, 56-58). In those days around eighteenth the rich were divine beings while the poor were not seen as individuals

Saturday, August 22, 2020

That vs. Which

That versus Which That versus Which That versus Which By Ali Hale One of our perusers, Justin, as of late wrote to inquire: While editing a friends article on the nearby planetary group, I understood that she, and I, are uncertain of the best possible utilization of that and which in a sentence. The following is [SIC] two instances of a similar sentence, one utilizing that and the other which. As far as anyone is concerned, it is the main body in the close planetary system which as of now supports life, albeit a few different bodies are under scrutiny. As far as anyone is concerned, it is the main body in the nearby planetary group that right now supports life, albeit a few different bodies are under scrutiny. Which is the right sentence, and what is the general dependable guideline? Justin, Ill offer you the response now, as opposed to making you read as far as possible of the entire article: the second form of that sentence, utilizing that is right. When To Use That and When To Use Which Before I make advances on the that/which rule, only an update that â€Å"who† ought to consistently be utilized when alluding to individuals. The kid who tossed the ball. This is the lady who consistently wears a dark shawl. When alluding to objects, however, the standard for utilizing â€Å"that† and â€Å"which† effectively is straightforward: THAT ought to be utilized to present a prohibitive condition. WHICH ought to be utilized to present a non-prohibitive or incidental provision. On the off chance that that leaves you more befuddled than when you started this article, read on A prohibitive provision is one which is basic to the importance of a sentence †if it’s expelled, the significance of the sentence will change. For instance: Seats that don’t have pads are awkward to sit on. Games that include wagering cash ought not be played in school. As far as anyone is concerned, it is the main body in the close planetary system that presently continues life A non-prohibitive proviso can be forgotten about without changing the importance of a sentence. Non-prohibitive provisos are either in sections or have a comma when them (or just before them on the off chance that they come toward the finish of a sentence): Seats, which are found in numerous work environments, are frequently awkward to sit on. I sat on an awkward seat, which was in my office. Why You Need to Use That or Which Correctly Changing that to which or the other way around can totally change the importance of a sentence. Think about the accompanying models: My vehicle that is blue goes exceptionally quick. My vehicle, which is blue, goes exceptionally quick. The principal sentence utilizes that †proposing I own more than one vehicle (and in any event, inferring my different vehicles probably won't be so quick). This is the thing that occurs on the off chance that we forget about the provision and compose: My vehicle that is blue goes quick. My vehicle goes quick. The sentence’s importance has changed: the peruser doesn't know which one of my vehicles goes quick. Be that as it may, the sentence utilizing which just advises the peruser that my vehicle is blue. We can take the provision out without losing any fundamental data: My vehicle, which is blue, goes exceptionally quick. My vehicle goes exceptionally quick. That and Which in Common Usage Today is regular for which to be utilized with both non-prohibitive and prohibitive statements, particularly in casual settings: Who ate the cake that I purchased early today? Who ate the cake which I purchased early today? The condition â€Å"that I purchased this morning† is basic to the significance †I’m not getting some information about a cake which I purchased yesterday, or this evening. Along these lines, the primary model utilizing â€Å"that† is the right one, yet numerous individuals would not consider the second ungrammatical. It is, nonetheless, inaccurate even in casual settings to utilize that for a non-prohibitive or parenthical provision. For instance, these sentences would be viewed as erroneous: This PC, that I have never preferred, is extremely moderate. The blue work area, that my dad gave me. A simple method to keep an eye out for these is to search for examples where you have a comma followed by the word that. In the event that Id know this years prior, it would have spared me a great deal of disappointment with Microsoft Word! Despite the fact that the utilization of which has been loose somewhat, it is still better to keep your composition as clear as conceivable by utilizing which for just non-prohibitive provisos, and that for prohibitive ones. Along these lines, to come back to Justins model: As far as anyone is concerned, it is the main body in the nearby planetary group which right now supports life, albeit a few different bodies are under scrutiny. As far as anyone is concerned, it is the main body in the close planetary system that right now continues life, albeit a few different bodies are under scrutiny. The subsequent sentence, utilizing that is right, however numerous individuals would consider the principal sentence passable as well. In a proper setting, for example, a logical paper, it is smarter to utilize that for all out clearness. Need to improve your English in a short time a day? Get a membership and begin accepting our composing tips and activities every day! Continue learning! Peruse the Grammar class, check our famous posts, or pick a related post below:50 Slang Terms for MoneyDo you arrange yourself, or orientate yourself?Neither... or on the other hand?

Thursday, August 20, 2020


Anchorage Anchorage ang ´k?rij [key], city (1990 pop. 226,338), Anchorage census div., S central Alaska, a port at the head of Cook Inlet; inc. 1920. It is the largest city in the state, the administrative and commercial heart of S central and W Alaska, one of the nation's key defense centers, and a vital transportation hub. Glenn Highway connects the city to the Alaska Highway and the Parks Highway. The international airport is a regular stop on intercontinental and transpolar flights. The city includes two U.S. military bases, Fort Richardson and Elmendorf Air Force Base. Anchorage is also the headquarters for the major oil and gas companies in Alaska. With oil discoveries in Cook Inlet in the late 1950s, and the discovery of massive petroleum and natural gas reserves in the Prudhoe Bay region in 1968, the population has more than quadrupled. Tourism has also increased dramatically, largely due to improvements in transportation and the creation of numerous national parks. Anchorage was fo unded (1915) as construction headquarters for the Alaska RR and grew as a railroad town. It also became a fishing center, a market and supply point for gold-mining regions to the north, and the metropolis for the coal mining and farming of the Matanuska valley. World War II brought the establishment of the large military bases and the enormous growth of air and rail traffic. The city suffered severe damage in the 1964 earthquake. Points of interest include Earthquake Park and several notable museums. The annual Iditarod Race (see under Iditarod ) starts from Anchorage, and a Fur Rendezvous winter carnival is held in the city every year. The city is the seat of Alaska Pacific Univ. and a campus of the Univ. of Alaska. Portage Glacier and Lake Hood are nearby, and Denali (Mt. McKinley) is visible from the city. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. Political Geograp hy

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay about Analysis of ÂOf Mice and Men by John Steinbeck

Analysis of ‘Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck ‘Of Mice And Men by John Steinbeck is a classic novel, tragedy, written in a social tone. The authorial attitude is idyllic, however, as the story develops it changes into skeptic. It is evident that Steinbeck knew the setting and places he is writing about. In my opinion Steinbeck drew the subject matter from his own experience of working on ranches, he was interested in special kinds of relationships among men working on†¦show more content†¦The men in the novel want to be like brothers to one another. They want to protect each other and to know that there is someone they can rely on. However, the world is too cruel to sustain such relationships. Lennie and George came closest to this ideal friendship, but they are forced to separate tragically. With this, a rare friendship vanishes, but the rest of the world - represented by Curley an d Carlson, who watch George leaving his friends dead body - fails to acknowledge it. The last theme is the impossibility of dreams. Most of the characters dream of a Motifs, which are repeated in the novel, are loneliness, friendship, strength and weakness. Men like George who migrate from farm to farm are often alone. As the story develops, Candy, Crooks, and Curleys wife all confess their deep loneliness. Each of these characters searches for a friend, someone to help them measure the world, as Crooks says. For George, the hope of such friendship dies with Lennie. Steinbeck explores different types of strength and weakness throughout the novel. The first, and most obvious, is physical strength. As the novel opens, Steinbeck shows how Lennie possesses physical strength beyond his control, when he cannot help killing mice. Physical strength is very important for men like George and Lennie. Curley, as a symbolShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck1493 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis of ‘Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck ‘Of Mice And Men by John Steinbeck is a classic novel, tragedy, written in a social tone. The authorial attitude is idyllic, however, as the story develops it changes into skeptic. It is evident that Steinbeck knew the setting and places he is writing about. In my opinion Steinbeck drew the subject matter from his own experience of working on ranches, he was interested in special kinds of relationships among men working on ranches with him. ThereRead MoreAnalysis of Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay815 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis of Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck The story Of Mice and Men was written by John Steinbeck in the year of 1937, during this time the great depression had taken place. Also from 1930 till 1945 this was when World War 2 had taken place amounts of 12 to 15 million people were unemployed they were more poor people on the streets than ever before as with the combination of the hungry and the homeless due to the war and the stock market crash making 15,000 banks Read MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 2778 Words   |  12 PagesLiterature 15 October 2014 Author Study: John Steinbeck John Steinbeck, born in February 27, 1902, worked as a manual labor worker before achieving his success as a well renowned American writer. A compassionate understanding of the world s disinherited was to be Steinbeck s hallmark. The novel In Dubious Battle (1936) defends striking migrant agricultural workers in the California fields. In the novel Of Mice and Men(1937; later made into a play), Steinbeck again utilizes the hardships of migrantRead MoreAnalysis Of Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck1400 Words   |  6 Pagesreality. In the book of Of Mice and Men, written by John Steinbeck, the story is a tale of two drifters working from farm to farm, trying to make a living, and save some money to have their own place someday, which is their dream during the Great Depression. The characters face the hardships of loneliness, poor wages and living conditions, judgemental farm owners, and situations that thwart their success at reaching their dream. In Of Mice and Men, the author Stei nbeck negatively implies that havingRead MoreAnalysis Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck723 Words   |  3 Pagesneed help. In mice and men, Lennie has trouble understanding the outside world and he takes time to process things in his brain. Lennie doesn’t know his strength and he can get into trouble easily. For example, when Curly wants to fight with Lennie, Lennie accidentally breaks his right arm. At the end of the story, Lennie hugs a puppy but accidentally kills it. Also, he kills Curly’s wife by snapping her neck. People with problems, how can they take care of themselves? In mice and men, George takesRead MoreOf Mice And Men By John Steinbeck Analysis1000 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Of Mice and Men† by John Steinbeck, portrayed the times of hardship and struggle in United States’ Great Depression. When two exorbitantly contrasting drifters, try to make enough money by working on ranches to achieve their variation of the American Dream. Steinbeck e ffectively got readers attention through each dramatic page and ended the novella with a drastic turn of events that will leave the readers in awe. Although many book concerning the great depression may seem boring Steinbeck was successfulRead MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 799 Words   |  4 PagesUday Sharma Ms. Hunt ENG-3U0 7/19/2015 Lennie Small: Character Analysis What happened to their dream? What went wrong? Of Mice and Men; by John Steinbeck is a novella about George and Lennie. George is a quick and witty person, whereas Lennie is slow and strong. Lennie Small is a child-like character who is innocent, kind-hearted, and short-tempered, these traits are some of the factors to many of the mishaps throughout the novella and relate to the theme that true friendship requires sacrificesRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 1406 Words   |  6 PagesRhetorical Analysis Essay John Steinbeck, writer of the novel, Of Mice and Men, uses many different rhetorical devices and appeals to unravel the essence and truth of the American Dream, while revolving around the world of these characters, George and Lennie. Written during the great depression, the novel itself shares the lives of many different people during that time period. It explored how everyone was treated through that time due to skin color, disabilities, and gender. Life during thisRead MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 1020 Words   |  5 PagesWeak Do opposites really attract? Can two people, with no similarities, share a close bond? It proves to be so in the novel Of Mice and Men , written by John Steinbeck. A novel which tells the story of two men, George and Lennie, and their journey of a new job working on a ranch. A novel with a different but interesting style of writing. A novel where John Steinbeck utilizes how powerful George is over Lennie, to signify how people believe they are dominant over others, because of their greaterRead MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men Essay1320 Words   |  6 Pagestowards women have been a problem in society since men foolishly decided to give women the stereotype of being housewives and only good for breeding children. Those who refuse to follow the stereotype are considered promiscuous, or unfaithful towards their significant other. This stereotype was highly expected of women during the early twentieth century, and was also exhibited in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice an d Men towards Curley’s wife. Of Mice and Men took place in the 1930s, and the plot follows two

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Atomic Bombs On Japanese Cities - 1454 Words

In 1945, President Truman had to make one of the toughest decisions a president has ever been faced with. This decision, of course, being whether to drop the atomic bombs on Japanese cities, not drop the bombs at all, or do a demonstration by dropping a bomb in the ocean near Tokyo. Truman eventually chose to drop the atomic bombs on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945. This choice to drop the atomic bombs was right because these bombings assisted in slowing the expansion of the Soviet Union, changed the Japanese never-give-up mentality, and prevented the loss of many American and Japanese lives. For a start, the use of the atomic bombs helped slow the expansion of the Soviet Union following World War II. In regards to this, the United States was able to use the threat of the atomic bombs to protect Western European countries from outside threats, which included communist takeover by the Soviet Union. This legitimate threat of nuclear defense of allies in Western Europe fol lowing the dropping of the atomic bombs was significant because it prevented the Soviet Union from attempting to take over and establish socialist governments in these countries as it had in Eastern Europe. In addition, due to the atomic bombings, the United States obtained a complete surrender by the Japanese to its troops alone rather than to both American and Soviet troops. This Japanese surrender to the U.S. alone was important because it allowed the United States to be in charge of theShow MoreRelatedAtomic Bombs Were Dropped On The Japanese Cities Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki1459 Words   |  6 Pages Two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945. This decision brought about many consequences on both Americans and Japanese. By the 1940s the creation of atomic weaponry became possible â€Å"because of Italian scientists Enrico Fermi’s discovery of the radioactivity of uranium in the 1930s† (Brinkley 638). Eventually this spread to the United States, and it was undertaken by military. President Harry Truman â€Å"issued an ultimatum to the Japanese, demandingRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb On The World War II887 Words   |  4 Pagesdrop two atomic bombs days apart in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. I completely agree with President Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb on the two Japanese cities because I believe it is the main reason that ended World War II. Being from Malaysia, my grandparents often told me stories of their sufferings during World War II. As Singapore’s former Prime Minister concurred, the Japanese soldiers were mean, brutal and vicious towards the civilians, and if the atomic bombs were notRead MoreHiroshima And Nagasaki Bombing Of Hiroshima1206 Words   |  5 PagesBombing In 1945, the US dropped 2 atomic bombs on the cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, causing hundreds of thousands civilian deaths. Some people say that this act helped to end the world war and save more lives, but others think that it was not needed and wasn t the cause of the Japanese surrender. Sequence of Events 5th August 1945 President gives approval to use bombs 6th August 1945 Bombing of Hiroshima 9th August 1945 Bombing of Nagasaki 15th August 1945 Japanese surrender (This Day in HistoryRead MoreThe United States Was Justified in Dropping the Atomic Bombs on Japan1244 Words   |  5 PagesStates of America dropped the Atomic Bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The use of these bombs brought a quick end to World War 2, yet caused extensive damage to the two Japanese cities. There have often been disputes as to whether the USA was justified in the dropping of the atomic bombs because of the damage they caused, not only to the cities, but to the people of Japan as well. Many people believe that the USA should not have dropped the bombs because of the damage they causedRead MoreThe Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb1207 Words   |  5 Pagesdropping of the atomic bombs in Japan was a very helpful source for the United States during the WWII. President Truman, took the responsibility of dropping and creation of the atomic bomb. For the reason that The United States was seeking revenge on Japan for the attack at Pearl Harbor. The atomic bomb caused a high number of innocent Japanese deaths and also awful sickness. The atomic bombs left a big impact in the Japanese empire; also effected the Japanese at the time of the atomic bomb and the generationRead MoreThe Threat Of The Atomic Bombs1467 Words   |  6 Pagesthe U.S. was Right in Dropping the Atomic Bombs In 1945, President Truman had to make one of the toughest decisions a president has ever been faced with. This decision, of course, being whether to drop the atomic bombs on Japanese cities, not drop the bombs at all, or do a demonstration by dropping a bomb in the ocean near Tokyo. Truman eventually chose to drop the atomic bombs on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945. This choice to drop the atomic bombs was right because these bombings assistedRead MoreAtomic Bomb Essay923 Words   |  4 PagesThe Atomic Bomb was the deadliest weapons in the history of war. Throughout World War II one of the most stubborn countries to surrender was Japan who relentlessly fought against the United States of America. After failing to defeat America, Japan was overwhelmed by allied forces. Staying with tradition however, Japan would rather die in battle than to surrender. The Soviet Union also fought against America but that was towards the end of the war. The United States dropped both of the Atomic BombsRead MoreA Closer Look at the Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki1485 Words   |  6 Pageseach one, the Japanese set themselves up for disaster. On August 6, 1945 the course of history was changed. Two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima, and three days later, August 9, 1945, on Nagasaki that ended World War II. Japan had already been a defeated nation from conventional bombs and World War II. Many innocent lives were lost, psychological scars were left on the lives of the bomb survivors, and thus many lives were changed forever. The atomic bombings causedRead MoreThe Morality of the U.S. Bombing Hiroshima1348 Words   |  6 PagesThe Morality of the U.S. Bombing Hiroshima On August 6 and 9, 1945, the only atomic bombs ever used in warfare were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The mass destruction and numerous deaths caused by those bombs ultimately put an end to World War II. Was this the only way to end the war, however? Could this killing of innocent Japanese citizens had been avoided and the war still ended quickly. This paper will go into this controversial topic.Read MoreTruman and Atomic Bombs649 Words   |  3 Pagesdecision to order the dropping of the atom bomb. HARRY S TRUMAN amp; THE DECISION TO ORDER THE DROPPING OF THE ATOMIC BOMB Boom! Boom! Seventy thousands Japanese citizens were perished instantly after the first atomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Japanese still refused to surrender to Allied forces. On August 9, 1945, with the dropping of the second atomic bomb in Nagasaki, where eighty thousands people were vaporized, Japanese surrendered unconditionally and the World War

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( Free Essays

A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950†³s resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. We will write a custom essay sample on National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( or any similar topic only for you Order Now The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the White elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the White elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school. Mr. Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law. In 1892, the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision had set a precedent for the issue of â€Å"separate but equal,† which had been applied to school in the Southern states since then. Parents in other states were also pursuing the challenge to the â€Å"separate but equal† doctrine in South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware. Mr. Brown†s case was heard by the U. S. District Court for the District of Kansas. The request by Mr. Brown was to prohibit segregation of the public schools in Topeka. The NAACP argued to the court that separating Black children from White children was sending a wrong type of message to the Black children. The message being sent was that Black children were somehow inferior to Whites and that there was no way that the education being provided could be equal. On the other hand, the Board of Education argued that segregation was a fact of life in the states where these children attended school, and that segregated schools helped prepare the children for the reality of what their adult lives would be like (Robinson 2005). The Board of education went on to cite different successful educated American, none of whom attended integrated schools, such as Frederick Douglass, George Washington Carver, and Booker T. Washington. In handing down their decision, the judges in this case wrote that â€Å"colored children†¦ † suffered a â€Å"detrimental effect† from segregation of the schools (Robinson 2005). However, they believed that the legal precedent set by the Plessy vs. Ferguson case prevented them from issuing the requested injunction and the result was that they ruled in favor of the Topeka Board of Education. Mr. Brown and the NAACP appealed the case and it went to the United States Supreme Court in the latter part of 1951. The case was combined with the Delaware, Virginia, and South Carolina cases. The Supreme Court handled this case very delicately and deliberated for quite sometime. The case was first heard by the Supreme Court, but a decision was not made at that time. Various interpretations of the Fourteenth Amendment were discussed and whether the Plessy vs. Ferguson case had violated it. The case was heard again by the Supreme Court in December of 1953. Thurgood Marshall, who was the first African American Supreme Court Justice, gladly argued for Brown and the NAACP. Finally, a decision was made. On May 17, 1954, the U. S. Supreme Court issued the following decision: â€Å"†¦ Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal education opportunities? We believe that it does†¦ We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of â€Å"separate but equal† has no place†¦ (Brown vs. Board 1954). The Supreme Court tasked the nation with implementing this historic decision with deliberate speed. Recognizing the value of education, the court ruled unanimously in favor of equity. The Supreme Court declared that education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. It prepares our children for later professional training and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. The court also declared that it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. But the vagueness of the phrase combined with continued bigotry slowed the process, in some cases to a standstill. With the segregation of public schools declared unconstitutional, segregationists across the South sprang into action to prevent the implementation of public school integration. Some states began to pass state laws to uphold segregation, which then had to be challenged in court by the federal government, one by one, delaying black children from attending White schools. Councils began to be developed, by segregationists, to fight against desegregation. One of the most dramatic occurred in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957, when White mobs screamed threats at nine Black high school students and blocked them, as they tried to go into their new school for the first time. The Black students were unsuccessful, unfortunately. The president at the time was President Eisenhower, of whom ended up calling in the National Guard to protect them so they could enter the school. President Eisenhower had to call in the National Guard to escort black children to an Arkansas school that refused to integrate. Other communities used different tactics to resist. In Virginia, schools closed rather than desegregate. Elsewhere, some white families migrated to suburbs. Some black parents kept their children in the same black schools to avoid conflict. Families who chose white schools under freedom of choice plans, allowing black children attend any school in a district, received threats. In at least one instance, a cross was burned outside the home of a family. Across the nation, the 1954 Supreme Court decision brought forth dreams of heightened hope and yet resistance, as well. According to Benjamin Mays, the backbone of segregation had been broken. Martin Luther King expressed that the decision was a joyous day-break after a long desolate midnight (Moss 2004, 63). In conclusion, school desegregation was not an issue that was resolved overnight; rather, it was the persistence of those against segregation and the realization of the unequality that it was enduring upon our children that pushed the historic decision that will never be forgotten. Fifty years after the decision was made, it stands to reason that generations of U. S. students have benefited from its relief. The ruling spawned other protectionist laws, Title IX, for example, which specifically extends Brown’s principles to gender, that prohibit noncompliant institutions from receiving federal funds, and it cleared the educational paths of millions of minority students. Yet today, people’s impressions of the impact of the decision vary as widely as their personal experiences. Baby boomers recall a time of expanded opportunity and change, while younger generations, nowadays, feel that the current classroom compositions are what they are, with the law behind them, the issue simply fills the pages in their history books. Although the Brown case directly addressed racial discrimination in public schools, the case has had great significance for women, as well. The Brown vs. Board of education decision was the legal decision necessary to stop segregation in its tracks. By the time the decision was handed down by the Supreme Court, Linda Brown had already moved on to attend middle school. How to cite National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Evolution of Cloud

Question: Discuss about the Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloud Computing. Answer: Introduction With the paradigm shift experienced in information and communication technology (ICT or IT), cloud computing has emerged as a global phenomenon, spreading its wing over a wide horizon. The term cloud computing has become a part-and-parcel of modern multinational business corporations (MNCs) such as Apple, IBM, Google, and Amazon and so on. With the monumental development of internet and computational technologies, coupled with mobile technologies, cloud computing has emerged as an omnipotent and omnipresent phenomena. Keeping aside the commercial intent, cloud computing has also ushered significant benefits for general utility, for example in healthcare sector. Therefore, the following sections will critically discuss in detail the different modes of use and the beneficial as well as negative outcomes yielded by cloud computing. Conceptual framework Figure 1: Conceptual Framework (Source: Kavis, 20144, p.242) Defining cloud computing Kavis (2014, p.129) has defined cloud computing as delivering the computing services through the internet. In other words, cloud computing is involved in delivering on-demand computing resources through internet on a pay-for-use contract. Generally, the services provided through cloud computing spans over a wide horizon such as servers, databases, storages, analytics, storages, software application and many more. Pearson (2013, p.18) has mentioned core elements of cloud computing as- Pay-per-use Using as per the nature and time of requirement Third-party provided service Zero change in ownership of the original property (intellectual or physical) Figure 2: Core elements of cloud computing (Source: Pearson 2013, p.12) From this perspective, cloud computing can be termed as an unique service that can allow multiple users to gain access in a specific project simultaneously without jeopardising the functionality or security protocols of a network infrastructure, that too irrespective of geographical borders or time. Exploring the evolution of cloud computing The origin of term cloud computing is itself shrouded in cloud as there is no specific mention of this term in history. The initial schematics of cloud computing referred to the use of internet in connecting several computers and the term cloud was used there as a metaphor for inter-connectivity irrespective of space and time (Rittinghouse and Ransome, 2016, p.177). The cloud symbol was fort formally used in ARPANET in the early 1977s and later service resembling cloud computing was also used by CSNET in 1981. However, both these instances predate the formal origin of internet, therefore scholars are sceptic whether to define such usage as a proper cloud computing or not. A major step in the evolutionary landscape of cloud computing was realised during 1960s with the popularisation of Remote Job Entry (RJE). Remote service providing vendors such as IBM and DEC popularised this terminology (, 2017). Later, in the 1990s, offering of Virtual Private Network services by telecommunications companies gained significance popularity. Such services were available at a lower cost and allowed users to switch traffic for maintaining the balance of servers (Fernndez et al. 2014, p.385). The first modern appearances of term cloud computing traced in a Compaq internal document. Since 2000, cloud computing service ballooned and started to be used for commercial purpose, which was earlier used by governmental agencies such as NASA. Finally, with the introduction of Elastic Compute Cloud by Amazon in 2006, this computing service was introduced to common public and since then cloud computing has gained continuous momentum (Hwang et al. 2013, p.167). Critically analysing the theoretical underpinnings of cloud computing The theoretical standpoint of cloud computing can be best understood through a critical evaluation of major cloud service models. It can also help to ascertain the types of cloud services and thus comprehend the benefits and challenges associated with each of them. Fernando et al (2013, p.86) has identified three major types of cloud services frequently used in contemporary world - IaaS, SaaS and PaaS model. However, it should be noted that there are also several other services models used in the arena of cloud computing. Data Analytics as a service is one major example in this regard. Figure 4: Three Major Cloud Service Models (Source: Fernando et al. 2013, p.85) Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) One of the most rudimentary form of cloud computing, IaaS allows users to rent information technology infrastructure such as servers and networks, storage, operating system, virtual machines tec. As per Kavis (2014, p.165), IaaS involves a pay-per-use service and is the main benefit lies in the absence of investing a large amount of resource for building hardware. In addition, as the services are available for rent, the providers can supply flexible as well as informative services based on clients demands. Despite the advantages, IaaS is the most expensive mode of cloud computing and the client has to take care of backup system regularly. A prominent example of this type of cloud service is Amazon WS service. Platform as a service (PaaS) In the opinion of Al-Roomi et al. (2013, p.95), PaaS is a special type of cloud computing service that provides on-demand cloud -based environment to clients where they can develop, test, deliver and manage a wide range of software applications. Such service is beneficial for developers as it allows them to freely develop applications minus the headache over managing entire infrastructure. One major drawback of PaaS is that the user has virtually no control over the platform and has to depend solely on cloud provider. Googles App Engine can be cited as a suitable example for this type of cloud computing service. Software as a service (SaaS) As per Dinh et al. (2013, p.1589), SaaS allows the delivery of software applications through internet, generally in a subscription based mode. In this type of service, cloud service providers host, manage and undertakes the maintenance of software application and associated infrastructure. In this way, users can relish the benefits of using upgraded software applications without worrying about information loss. Hashem et al. (2015, p.99) has criticises this platform as the user is not authorised to add or modify any features, thus posing a limitation in application. Google Docs, a cloud-based document editor application is one famous example of SaaS. Figure 5: Adoption of Cloud Computing services (Sources: Rittinghouse and Ransome, 2016, p.172) These models are deployed into service through several forms. As commented by Oliveira et al. (2014, p.498), major deployment models include public cloud, community cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud. Public cloud generally employs a SaaS mode and Google is a notable example of this type of cloud. On the other hand, private clouds are managed by private entities and maintenance of such cloud often involves high expense, owing to integrated firewall services. The disadvantages of these two cloud services were averted in hybrid cloud, where elements of private, public and community cloud services have been effectively blended in (Avram, 2014, p.530). This type of cloud service allows the movement of information an application between public and private clouds. CRM software platforms can be cited as an example of hybrid cloud. Critically evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing Now that most commonly used models of cloud computing and associated cloud services has been critically discussed, it is imperative to speculate the benefits provided by those cloud services, along with the challenges posed by them. Advantages of cloud computing As Avram (2014, p.529) has commented, cloud computing has revolutionised the business process by incorporating IT resources into it. As a result, contemporary organisations, irrespective of their nature and purpose, churn huge benefit from implementing cloud computing. Major benefits have been penned down in the following points- Cost efficiency As per Sicari et al. (2014, p.148), cloud computing is undoubtedly the most cost-effective mode of technology to be used in wide array of scenarios. Cloud computing has enabled organisation to cut down their capital expense involved in setting up IT infrastructure and its maintenance. Consequently, the costs for ensuring continuous power and cooling have also been transferred in other productive purposes. Furthermore, this service is also available at comparatively cheaper rate and clients can render this service as per their specific needs and requirements, thus saving cost from investing in unnecessary applications. Speed As most of cloud computing service providers supply self-service features, vast amount of information of resources can be processesed within a very short span of time. Sultan (2014, p.180) has stated that the added speed available in cloud computing service grants medical business greater flexibility and thus reduces the pressure associated with capacity planning. Global presence cloud computing services, not being limited to any physical IT infrastructure, grants greater elasticity to business in terms of scaling (, 2015). This helps individuals working from different corners of the world to smoothly collaborate with each other without much hassle. Increased productivity and performance IT industry often involves typical time consuming IT chores such as setting up hardware, software patching and so on. Fortunately, cloud computing has reduced the need for such activities and allowed IT organizations to focus on pursuing their business goals - thus increasing both organisational performance and productivity. Better reliability With the options of online storage, backup and recovery, cloud computing has increased the reliability and security of information (, 2017). As cloud service providers are responsible manage the security patching, user can store sensitive information without worrying much. Furthermore, the provision of data mirroring also grants additional layer of security in case information is lost from one host. Automated software upgradation and integration Another major benefit associated with cloud computing is that software used by users are automatically integrated in the cloud platforms, thus removing the additional effort of an user to customise the application s per personal requirement. Scalability and flexibility Assuno et al. (2014, p.12) has stated that cloud computing assist organisations to utilize additional resources as per their requirements, this amplifying the organisational productivity. Through the provision of easy resource sharing, organizational activities become more flexible and management can easily scale the outcomes of every activity efficiently. Automated and focussed approach Dinh et al. (2013, p.1595) has commented that cloud computing has enabled organisations to automate their processes so that data management requirements are addressed effectively. In turn, this has allowed resource sharing smoother and organisations can now focus on their productive activities such as research and development (RD) more effectively. Disadvantages of cloud computing Contrary to numerous advantages, cloud computing also incorporates several major threats that can be considered as it disadvantages. They are- Figure 5: Major disadvantages of cloud computing (Source: Kshetri 2013, p.372) Security issue In the opinion of Kshetri (2013, p.373), security concern is the major drawback of cloud computing. As in most of cases users cannot put additional encryption to the stored information, any malicious agent such as hacker can easily gain access to that information. Such cases are more prevalent where cloud service providers are not capable of augmenting highly efficient firewall mechanism. Furthermore, cloud-service provide a by a third-party provider often involves the risk of entire data loss if the service provider runs into any cyber-attack. Therefore it is recommended to the beneficiaries to carefully evaluate the security service provided in the cloud platform. Cost Although cloud computing may appear as cost-effective from the surface, it is often just tip-of-the-iceberg. Once an organisation shifts into cloud computing, it is virtually impossible to revert back to conventional mode. As a result, the organisation has to continually spend financial resources for hiring and maintaining the cloud service (Patel et al. 2013, p.27). In this way, cloud computing can become much costlier in the long run. Lack of flexibility As contradicted by Stojmenovic et al. (2016, p.2995), opting for cloud computing can permanently lock the bones procedure of an organisation into that mode, thus preventing additional formats or applications to be used in the future. For example, an organisation cannot use document made from another application in the Google Docs platform, as it simply would not support. Thus, cloud computing essentially hinders flexibility in operations. Apart from these major disadvantages, other drawbacks of cloud computing include lack of support (difficulty in obtaining customer service promptly), probability of breaching the confidentiality of sensitive information (breaching the data privacy protocols), backdated encryption technology (leading to major interception), lack of fixed and scheduled backup service, lack of control over data (as cloud platform is maintained by third-party vendor), malicious intents of intermediary agencies, lack of valid information over data storage location (data often stored in remote servers) and last but not the least lack of provision of audit (Sun et al. 2014, p.192). Identifying the gaps in policies and practices From the discussion made above, it is clear that major gaps associated with cloud computing involves involvement of high cost, lack of security and absence of any specific cloud computation policy. Absence of any robust policy allows misuse of cloud computing technology for malicious practices, thus bring the sensitive and valuable information stored into cloud at stake. Conclusion This paper has critically evaluated the advantages endowed and disadvantages posed by cloud computing (CC). For this purpose, an operational definition of cloud computing was furnished in the beginning of this paper. After that, the evolutionary perspective of cloud computing was penned down which depicted the origin of cloud in 1970s and its gradual development through the years. In the next section, most frequently used three models of cloud computing, namely IaaS, PaaS and SaaS were briefly discussed. The discussion followed by critical evaluation of the advantages and the disadvantages yielded by cloud computing. While the major advantages include increased speed, performance, productivity and reduction of cost; negative aspects include concern over data security and lack of effective control. Finally, gaps were identified from the discussion and it can be concluded that cloud computing is an effective tool of digital technology that can be used in different contexts and usher si gnificant benefits. However, the entity implementing cloud computing should be aware of the challenges and adopt necessary preventive steps. In this way, the paper has presented a holistic account on different aspects of cloud computing. Reference list Al-Roomi, M., Al-Ebrahim, S., Buqrais, S. and Ahmad, I., (2013). Cloud computing pricing models: a survey.International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing,6(5), pp.93-106. Assuno, M.D., Calheiros, R.N., Bianchi, S., Netto, M.A. and Buyya, R., (2015). Big Data computing and clouds: Trends and future directions.Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing,79(8), pp.3-15. Avram, M.G., (2014). Advantages and challenges of adopting cloud computing from an enterprise perspective.Procedia Technology,12(9), pp.529-534. (2017).What is cloud computing? A beginners guide | Microsoft Azure. Available at: [Accessed on 17 Aug. 2017]. Dinh, H.T., Lee, C., Niyato, D. and Wang, P., (2013). A survey of mobile cloud computing: architecture, applications, and approaches.Wireless communications and mobile computing,13(18), pp.1587-1611. Fernndez, A., del Ro, S., Lpez, V., Bawakid, A., del Jesus, M.J., Bentez, J.M. and Herrera, F., (2014). Big Data with Cloud Computing: an insight on the computing environment, MapReduce, and programming frameworks.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery,4(5), pp.380-409. Fernando, N., Loke, S.W. and Rahayu, W., (2013). Mobile cloud computing: A survey.Future generation computer systems,29(1), pp.84-106. Hashem, I.A.T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N.B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A. and Khan, S.U., (2015). The rise of big data on cloud computing: Review and open research issues.Information Systems,47(8), pp.98-115. Hwang, K., Dongarra, J. and Fox, G.C., (2013).Distributed and cloud computing: from parallel processing to the internet of things. Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann. (2015).4 Types of Cloud Computing Deployment Model You Need to Know. Available at: [Accessed on 16 Aug. 2017]. (2017).IBM - What is cloud computing?. Available at: [Accessed on 16 Aug. 2017]. Kavis, M.J., (2014).Architecting the cloud: design decisions for cloud computing service models (SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS). Hoboken: John Wiley Sons. Kshetri, N., (2013). Privacy and security issues in cloud computing: The role of institutions and institutional evolution.Telecommunications Policy,37(4), pp.372-386. Oliveira, T., Thomas, M. and Espadanal, M., (2014). Assessing the determinants of cloud computing adoption: An analysis of the manufacturing and services sectors.Information Management,51(5), pp.497-510. Patel, A., Taghavi, M., Bakhtiyari, K. and JNior, J.C., (2013). An intrusion detection and prevention system in cloud computing: A systematic review.Journal of network and computer applications,36(1), pp.25-41. Pearson, S., (2013). Privacy, security and trust in cloud computing. InPrivacy and Security for Cloud Computing. London:Springer. Rittinghouse, J.W. and Ransome, J.F., (2016).Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security. Boca Raton: CRC press. Sicari, S., Rizzardi, A., Grieco, L.A. and Coen-Porisini, A., (2015). Security, privacy and trust in Internet of Things: The road ahead.Computer Networks,76(4), pp.146-164. Stojmenovic, I., Wen, S., Huang, X. and Luan, H., (2016). An overview of fog computing and its security issues.Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience,28(10), pp.2991-3005. Sultan, N., (2014). Making use of cloud computing for healthcare provision: Opportunities and challenges.International Journal of Information Management,34(2), pp.177-184. Sun, Y., Zhang, J., Xiong, Y. and Zhu, G., (2014). Data security and privacy in cloud computing.International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks,10(7), p.190-195.